I should look at the actions of American Psychiatric Assocation (APA) (1).
Although American homosexuals today are still struggling for equal
rights, no shift has been more drastically beneficial for the status
of homosexuality than its declassification as a mental illness. The
American Psychiatric Association’s Board of Trustees passed this
ICD-10 is a classification system which can be used to record certain disease states of a patient, e.g. I50 meaning "Heart failure" or I50.1 meaning "Left ventricular failure".
SNOMED CT provides multiple advantages:
SNOMED CT covers all clinical terms, not just disease states. For example we can say 85232009 meaning "left heart failure" but we could also ...
In many cases they do reflect the actual diagnosis.
It depends on the disease in question.
eMerge network work on validation is for example here: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3715338. In that study, they used ICD-based definitions but also other available data.
Similar work in diabetes mellitus diagnosis is also published (https://www.ncbi....
ICD-10 is the "International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems"; it is not limited to mental health and is used for medical records, statistical, and billing purposes across the whole gamut that may cause someone to have an interaction with medical services of some sort.
The "F##" designations cover "...
Most of the time, the DRG for a claim that is submitted for payment is found using a "grouper" program based on ICD diagnoses, procedures, age, sex, discharge status and the presence of complications or comorbidities. These programs are proprietary.
Here is a website that provides a demo of use of a grouper program to find a DRG.
A good way to understand the 5 levels that are described in the paper might be to go to a website that presents information on the entire ICD-9 and permits the user to “click though” the levels of codes. Here is a good place to do this.
The hierarchy for the ICD-9 includes first the choice to classify based on Diseases ...
It does not have to exhausted.
The best way would be to point to coder's guideline.
Instead, I will use a data method to prove it.
To prove it via data, you can analyze data from Columbia Open Health Data (from Columbia U in NYC) and look for broad terms and you would see that they have counts that are greater than sum of the most granular terms.