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9

This is a very interesting question. It's also highly speculative, and vague (what does "a doctor... gives them any medicine necessary to protect them from other diseases that might be lurking in their body" mean? Does it mean they treat the symptoms of AIDS (weight loss, diarrhea, etc?) If it does, then the difference between not treating HIV but ...


8

There are three major reasons why we can't just keep someone in an aseptic environment and wait for their CD4 count to drop to zero and - presumably - for HIV to have consumed itself to extinction in the patient: Time. In the Pre-HAART era in a middle-income country like Brazil, the median survival time for someone with AIDS was 1.1 years, but that can be a ...


6

This is not a silly question. While transfusing white blood cells, with the CCR5 mutation isn't a solution because these cells will be rejected by the recipient's body (and also because those cells have a limited life time), transplantation of so called "stem cells" have provided promising results in HIV+ patients with blood cancer undergoing stem cell ...


6

You can only get HIV from someone or something already infected. This includes humans, needles, breast milk, etc. HIV virus must come in contact with a damaged or open tissue. CDC.gov You can get or transmit HIV only through specific activities. Most commonly, people get or transmit HIV through sexual behaviors and needle or syringe use. You must ...


6

What should I take care of while sleeping with another woman to protect her against AIDS? Get tested and go see you doctor. CDC.gov: No HIV test can detect HIV immediately after infection. If you think you’ve been exposed to HIV, talk to your health care provider as soon as possible. It takes 3-12 weeks after initial exposure for testing to be able ...


5

Your back-of-the-envelope calculations seem to be off in estimating the extent of viral load reduction in a treated versus untreated person as well as the risk of transmission for unprotected, untreated sex (5% is much higher than any other number I have seen). Obviously the viral load is not zero because then they wouldn't be HIV positive is not ...


5

No. One is either infected or one isn't. There is no middle ground. Infection is defined as invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues, as in an infectious disease. Also, biologically speaking, there aren't even viruses added because they remove them from their organism first (draw blood) and then re-insert them


5

Yes, anal sex is the most risky method of sex with the highest possible chances for HIV infection. This is clearly said in the official Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website: Anal sex is the riskiest sexual behavior for getting and transmitting HIV for men and women. As for the reason, it's neither the penis nor the anus directly. They ...


5

It's quite easy to be infected with HIV and not know it. HIV is notoriously stealthy, often producing no symptoms for months or even years, and in the meantime the person can transmit the disease. That scenario describes a large percentage of the people who have transmitted the disease. Then there are the people who don't even know it exists, much less how ...


5

In addition to what anongoodnurse wrote about the patient likely dieing, I don't think this scenario would work at all. HIV doesn't infect all immune cells. It infects T-cells/CD4 cells, which are used for adaptive immunity. There are two features of HIV infections that make your scenario impossible or almost impossible: The time between infection of a ...


4

Question: If HIV is an STI, then why is HIV often listed separately, for example: HIV & Sexually Transmitted Infections Fact sheet STDs and HIV – CDC Fact Sheet What You Need To Know About the Links Between HIV and STDs Reason 1. The articles linked above have "HIV and STI" or "HIV or STDs" in the titles because they describe how a person with a ...


4

This is a good question, and although as you correctly state that HIV is an STI (see STI vs STD vs Sexually Transmitted Virus?) there is a difference with HIV which is one reason why it may be separated from others. It can be thought that HIV is separated from STIs in factsheet titles etc. because HIV is a virus when others are not, but there are other STI ...


3

Someone who's been infected by COVID-19 is asymptomatic but can spread the disease for no more than 14 days. Quarantine measures were started in China less than two months after the first case. Someone who's been infected with HIV can be asymptomatic but capable of spreading the disease for 20 years or more. Further, the outbreak started sometime between ...


3

There is a similar question from biology section(https://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/15712/how-do-viruses-or-bacteria-survive-outside-the-body-long-enough-to-spread) but your question focuses more on the pathophysiology. There will be several factors affecting it's ability to 'infect'. One is the virus' ability to survive outside a host cell, ...


3

One problem with this approach of seeking knowledge is the theoretical nature of the question itself: Unprotected fellatio, which has been practiced by all civilizations since mists of time, is now becoming a cause of concern due to the AIDS epidemic. Most of the sexually transmitted infectious diseases are concerned by fellatio and only few medical ...


3

Major Edit: Corrected extremely incorrect stats The vagina, being "designed" (evolutionary speaking) for intercourse, has a lining which is reasonably good at fending off pathogens, particularly viruses like HIV. If there are no breaks in this lining (such as from rough sex), the risk of contracting HIV from a single sexual encounter with someone with a ...


3

HIV is short for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, so you're asking what causes the virus. Well, that doesn't make much sense and I don't think that's what you meant to ask. I think what you meant to ask is what causes AIDS, or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. AIDS is the disease that is caused by the HIV virus. You are correct that the means of contracting ...


3

I'm afraid the answer is no, you can't know in advance if the condom is going to break. As far as I can tell, and from my own personal experience, most condom failures are not due to the condom itself being bad, but from misusing it, e.g. putting it in a wrong angle (so it slides off during the act), using too much force during the act, thus tearing the ...


2

Estimating the risk of communication of two members of the herpesvirus family (Herpesviridae) in this context is very difficult to answer, not only because of lack of research, but because of the many possible environmental factors. Nevertheless, HSV (Herpes Simplex Virus) survives for short periods of time outside the host (1). It can survive on dry ...


2

From a rigorous scientific viewpoint, it at first makes indeed not much sense to list STIs and HIV separately. HIV is a virus that once it is in your body and you have antibodies developed will have caused an STI, which once it progresses to the symptoms of AIDS, becomes an STD that nobody wants. So it is mainly a historically formed cultural response to ...


2

You are indeed correct! The origins and first usage of the word "patient-zero" was actually a total misinterpretation that was caught on quickly by the media, and has since been perpetuated henceforth. The phrase was coined in the early 1980's in reference to Gaëtan Dugas, who was erroneously identified as the cause of the AIDS outbreak. Your sources are ...


1

A detailed description of the “generations” of HIV testing by Alexander has been published. Alexander TS. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Diagnostic Testing: 30 Years of Evolution. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2016;23:249-253. DOI: 10.1128/CVI.00053-16 https://cvi.asm.org/content/23/4/249 As described in Table 3 of this paper, a fourth generation HIV test ...


1

Porco et al studied a situation where a phlebotomist in California admitted to intentionally reusing needles. They estimated likelihood of HIV transmission (as well as hepatitis B/C) based on population prevalence (the first person needs to be HIV+), transmission probability (enough virus needs to remain alive and get transferred to the second person to ...


1

As per the US CDC non-detectable viral load means effectively no transmission possible (there are not many absolutes in medical sciences). See also: https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/art/index.html Numerous campaigns have been created on these findings: http://www.aidsmap.com/about-hiv/undetectable-viral-load-and-transmission-information-people-hiv https://www....


1

Although cirumcision slightly reduces the chances of getting HIV, there is another pathology that it prevents almost in its entirety: Penile cancer (still it's doubtfully enough justification to warrant a circumcision public health policy or something, since it's very rare to begin with) Another I can think off-the-top of my head: Cholecystectomy for ...


1

HIV blood tests (for antigens and antibodies) are, at least where I practice, 4mL. However, if your doctor wants other blood tests she might add 1-2 vials of the same size. Depends on the organisation of the clinical lab and the tests draw. I'm not fully familiar with how rapid HIV testing is done though. That might be slightly different.


1

The big problem with HIV is its variability. HIV-1 and HIV-2 are genetically 40 percent different - and that's in the most conserved regions. Some of the subgroups of HIV-1 have similar values. This led to HIV-2 and HIV-1 subgroup O, in the past, often not being detected by standard HIV tests, leading to false negatives. Subgroup O False-negative ...


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