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6

I should look at the actions of American Psychiatric Assocation (APA) (1). Although American homosexuals today are still struggling for equal rights, no shift has been more drastically beneficial for the status of homosexuality than its declassification as a mental illness. The American Psychiatric Association’s Board of Trustees passed this ...


6

The discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming was accidental. In 1927 he had been investigating the properties of staphylococci and when he returned to his laboratory after few weeks (which was often untidy), to his surprise one culture was contaminated with a fungus and the colonies of staphylococci immediately surrounding the fungus had been ...


5

During the First World War many German soldiers on the Western Front suffered from dysentry. The physician Alfred Nissle compared sick and healthy soldiers and figured that the intestinal bacteria were significantly different. Reasoning that perhaps the bacteria from the healthy soldiers might contribute to healing the sick, he isolated a strain called ...


5

When was congenital-analgesia (aka congenital insensitivity to pain), the inability to feel pain, clinically documented? It was first reported in 1932 in this paper: Dearborn, G. V. N. (1932). A case of congenital general pure analgesia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 75, 612-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-193206000-00002 However, I tried ...


4

There is an excellent wikipedia page about the the procedure called tonsillectomy: "Although tonsillectomy is performed less frequently than in the 1950s, it remains one of the most common surgical procedures in children in the United States and many other western countries." That WP page is amply sourced with research papers, the following box is just a ...


3

We have a more plausible reason for the reappearance in 1977 of H1N1. The thesis is that a live attenuated version of H1N1 (LAIV) was used by Chinese scientists who innoculated several 1000s military recruits. It likely was not attenuated correctly and reverted to a more virulent form in-vivo leading to the epidemic. Between 1962 and 1973, almost 40,000 ...


3

According to the Glossary of Old Medical Terms by Craig Thornber: Rising of the Lights: croup - any obstructive condition of the larynx or trachea (windpipe), characterised by a hoarse, barking cough and difficult breathing, occurring chiefly in infants and children. which backs up the speculations in Correspondence in the British Medical Journal, Dec ...


3

From this answer on Biology.SE (given and researched by me): Yes, this is possible through something called heteropaternal superfecundation (see below for further explanation). Of all twin births, 30% are identical and 70% are non-identical (fraternal) twins. Identical twins result when a zygote (one egg, or ovum, fertilized by one sperm) splits at an ...


2

Short: before the knowledge of blood typing transfusions were attempted and near all failed. Long: There were many attempted transfusions that were mostly fatal. The first attempted (recorded) transfusions were practise by the Incas. Since 1616 when circulation was first detailed practitioners have been attempting to transfusion substances. These include ...


2

According to this source and this, brain cancer was first discovered in 1873 and brain tumor before that. We can't say for sure when the first case of brain tumor occurred because it may have been originated in the prehistoric times. Since no data was recorded in those times, it isn't certain to say when and where the first case of brain tumor occurred. ...


2

Nonetheless, we do know that he became ill on November 22 and died on December 5, 1791, one of many during a fever epidemic. According to his sister-in-law, Sophie, Mozart had a very high fever and was unconscious for most of his illness. The researchers looked at death records in Vienna during the months surrounding Mozart's death — November and December ...


2

Short answer The authors explicitly mention to have found a component of tissues, not an organ. Background The authors make no mention of an 'organ'. Here's an excerpt from the Discussion section of the linked paper: In sum, while typical descriptions of the interstitium suggest spaces between cells, we describe macroscopically visible spaces within ...


1

In three recent past outbreaks involving a new virus (or an old virus spreading)—the Ebola outbreaks in West Africa and the Congo, the Zika outbreak in South America, and the 2009 H1N1 (swine flu) influenza pandemic-- the WHO or its subsidiaries (PAHO) have played a prominent role in tracking the outbreak and making regular reports about disease spread ...


1

Historically, vaccines eg 1955 polio vaccine had side effects due to manufacturing issues allowing live virus to appear in the vaccine in the Cutter company’s vaccine. In 1976, a swine flu vaccine was shown to have a risk of 1 in 100,000 of Guillaine-Barre Syndrome, a transient but serious neuromuscular syndrome. The 1998 rotavirus vaccine was shown to ...


1

How long can it take to figure it out if a vaccine gives bad side effects? How about 20 years? Because deciding if the observed side effects are caused by a vaccine or not is not actually trivial: all three of Sabin’s OPV strains were approved for use in the US, and in 1961-62 they replaced IPV for routine immunization against poliomyelitis. As soon as OPV ...


1

According to a 1992 review the conclusion of release from a freezer is one obtained by elimination of alternatives: Where was this virus for 27 years? The possible explanations include preservation in a frozen state, preservation in an animal reservoir, or retention in an integrated, as yet undetected form in the genetic material of a human or ...


1

If based on WHO situation reports, an estimate of 10% for the case fatality rate for pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 lasted about five to six days, not weeks and not months. This does not mean that a 10% case fatality rate was erased from press reports or from public perception about the virus even after WHO reported substantially lower case fatality rates. ...


1

The term "earwig" comes from people thinking that the animal crawled (and wiggled) into people's ears. It doesn't. So this has nothing to do with using it as medication against ear infections etc. (In German, by the way, it's called Ohrenkneifer (ear pincher))


1

The first recorded blood transfusion was done on dogs in 1665. Two years later, blood was successfully transferred from a sheep to a human. In 1818, James Blundell, an obstetrician, successfully treated a patient with postpartum hemorrhage with her husband's blood. The main problem that stood in the way of the development of blood transfusion was the ...


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