10 votes

Does blood donation reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease?

In premenopausal women, the risk of developing atherosclerosis is half that of men. In 1991, Sullivan proposed the iron hypothesis which attributed this decreased risk to premenopausal women's lower ...
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  • 1,680
7 votes
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Why do toenails turn black after impact?

What you have is called a subungual hematoma; that's just a fancy way of saying a collection of blood under the nail. It may happen with any kind of direct trauma, including (perhaps the worst?) a ...
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6 votes

What should be done if a person is stabbed?

If the weapon is still in the wound : don't touch anything and call the appropriate emergency system (varies from country to country). Never attempt to remove any penetrating object still in situ ...
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6 votes
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Citrate vs EDTA

I'm not familiar with using citrate or EDTA as an anticoagulant in medical care (i.e. as a drug). However, it is often used in blood sampling tubes so that the blood sample does not clot. As to ...
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5 votes

Why do toenails turn black after impact?

It's much the same as any other traumatic impact, it's a collection of blood from ruptured vessels. In the skin, it appears as a bruise. When under the nail, it appears as a black shape, usually a ...
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5 votes
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How is anaemia commonly diagnosed?

In the context of your question, the clinical context is limited to a patient's history (symptoms and relevant circumstances) and signs discovered during a physical examination, which can include ...
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4 votes
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How reliable is the determination method of reference ranges for blood tests?

Question: How reliable is the determination method of reference ranges for blood tests? Short answer: The tests for which you can find different reference ranges may not be unreliable because of ...
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4 votes
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What happens when you put O+ blood in O- body

Kinda interesting question IMHO, let me break it down a little. First, let's tackle the ABO system. Here you are transfusing O into O, so that would be perfectly fine. Secondly, the is the Rhesus ...
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4 votes
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How to deal with pale fingers in cold weather?

The phenomenon you are describing and the one shown in the picture is known as Reynaud's phenomenon. In cold temperatures, the body constricts the peripheral blood vessels to prevent losing heat from ...
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  • 1,680
3 votes

Decisions about anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation: how to factor in thrombocytopenia?

There are a number of indices used to assess bleeding risk Bleeding risk scores to quantify hemorrhage risk include HAS-BLED (Hypertension, Abnormal renal/liver function, Stroke, Bleeding history ...
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2 votes

What did people do before the discovery of blood groups?

Short: before the knowledge of blood typing transfusions were attempted and near all failed. Long: There were many attempted transfusions that were mostly fatal. The first attempted (recorded) ...
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  • 121
2 votes

Does a person's healthy hemoglobin level vary from country to country?

To be precise, one needs to know what "normal" means. Normal is actually a function of two measurements (for example, hemoglobin level and number of people sampled with said hemoglobin level). This ...
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2 votes
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Thrombotic events and antiphospholipid syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by the occurrence of venous or arterial thrombosis and/or an adverse pregnancy outcome due to the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) 1. ...
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2 votes
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Why is prothrombin time not used to monitor the effects of heparin?

Most PT assays contain polybrene, which neutralizes heparin. According to "Coagulation assays and anticoagulant monitoring": Polybrene is a positively charged material that will neutralize UFH, and ...
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  • 1,054
2 votes

Is there evidence that vaccine-related blood clots could be due to injection technique?

While I realize this doesn't answer your question in the narrow way that you frame it ("I do not believe that we can exclude accidental errors as a potential cause" as you put it), I'm ...
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2 votes
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The role of growth factors in haemopoiesis

I'll admit, this is far from being clear and I don't have enough points to make this as comment yet but let me try to give you a help with this pseudo-answer. After birth, hematopoiesis is mainly ...
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  • 473
1 vote
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Is there evidence that vaccine-related blood clots could be due to injection technique?

Yes. This recent Nature article mentions a few potential hypotheses for vaccine-related blood clots, including the hypothesis in question here: One possible factor affecting the safety of adenoviral ...
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  • 156
1 vote
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Why does hydrops fetalis occur in erythroblastosis fetalis?

Many conditions can lead to fetal hydrops. The most significant contributing factor is the fetal homeostatic response to relative hypoxia. For a number of reasons, the fetus is more prone to the ...
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  • 2,331
1 vote

Hemeatology vs Hematology

It's just a misspelling of haematology, which is the British spelling of hematology. Hematology and haematology are synonyms, and there is no such word hemeatology. From the Merriam-Webster Medical ...
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1 vote
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Explanation of normal CRP during neutrophilia?

C-reactive protein synthesis is driven primarily by interleukin-6 IL-6 induces CRP production in the liver by activating Janus kinases. Signal transducers and activators of transcription ...
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1 vote
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Take different blood components from different people

There are no stupid ideas, this is a very good question. Unfortunately the answer is you can't do this - what determines the blood type is the presence of antigens on the surface of red blood cells. ...
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  • 385
1 vote

What did people do before the discovery of blood groups?

The first recorded blood transfusion was done on dogs in 1665. Two years later, blood was successfully transferred from a sheep to a human. In 1818, James Blundell, an obstetrician, successfully ...
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