10

In premenopausal women, the risk of developing atherosclerosis is half that of men. In 1991, Sullivan proposed the iron hypothesis which attributed this decreased risk to premenopausal women's lower blood iron levels, and suggested that blood donation may reduce the risk of developing atherosclerosis. The validity of the hypothesis is still an open ...


7

What you have is called a subungual hematoma; that's just a fancy way of saying a collection of blood under the nail. It may happen with any kind of direct trauma, including (perhaps the worst?) a broken toe. It is similar to any other injury causing bleeding; the major difference is you can actually see the dark blood because the nail is transparent. Yes, ...


6

If the weapon is still in the wound : don't touch anything and call the appropriate emergency system (varies from country to country). Never attempt to remove any penetrating object still in situ as this may cause more serious bleeding If the wound is open, apply little pressure on it with clean clothes. And call the appropriate emergency system, keep ...


6

I'm not familiar with using citrate or EDTA as an anticoagulant in medical care (i.e. as a drug). However, it is often used in blood sampling tubes so that the blood sample does not clot. As to their difference, EDTA works irreversibly while citrate is reversible. EDTA is used more often most notably to get the complete blood count. Citrate is mostly used ...


5

It's much the same as any other traumatic impact, it's a collection of blood from ruptured vessels. In the skin, it appears as a bruise. When under the nail, it appears as a black shape, usually a crescent. If the amount of blood is significant, or if the pressure of it causes pain, you should have it checked out by a podiatrist. It is also possible that if ...


5

In the context of your question, the clinical context is limited to a patient's history (symptoms and relevant circumstances) and signs discovered during a physical examination, which can include manual tests and tests using a stethoscope and other simple instruments. Clinical context here does not include laboratory tests and other tests that involve "...


4

Question: How reliable is the determination method of reference ranges for blood tests? Short answer: The tests for which you can find different reference ranges may not be unreliable because of different ranges but because they are unreliable as such. For example, all reference ranges for vitamin B12 in the blood are unreliable, because the blood levels of ...


4

Kinda interesting question IMHO, let me break it down a little. First, let's tackle the ABO system. Here you are transfusing O into O, so that would be perfectly fine. Secondly, the is the Rhesus factor. Rh+ erythrocytes have a special antigen on their surface, and if the recipient has antibodies against that antigen, that would cause problems (for ...


4

The phenomenon you are describing and the one shown in the picture is known as Reynaud's phenomenon. In cold temperatures, the body constricts the peripheral blood vessels to prevent losing heat from the blood to the outside air. In Reynaud's phenomenon, this constriction is exaggerated and may prevent blood flow to the fingers or toes (and sometimes ...


3

There are a number of indices used to assess bleeding risk Bleeding risk scores to quantify hemorrhage risk include HAS-BLED (Hypertension, Abnormal renal/liver function, Stroke, Bleeding history or predisposition, Labile INR, Elderly, Drugs/alcohol concomitantly), RIETE (Computerized Registry of Patients With Venous Thromboembolism), HEMORR2HAGES (...


2

I'll admit, this is far from being clear and I don't have enough points to make this as comment yet but let me try to give you a help with this pseudo-answer. After birth, hematopoiesis is mainly limited to the red bone marrow, with some lymphatic tissues assisting in the production of lymphocytes. All blood cell elements are derived from a single population ...


2

Short: before the knowledge of blood typing transfusions were attempted and near all failed. Long: There were many attempted transfusions that were mostly fatal. The first attempted (recorded) transfusions were practise by the Incas. Since 1616 when circulation was first detailed practitioners have been attempting to transfusion substances. These include ...


2

To be precise, one needs to know what "normal" means. Normal is actually a function of two measurements (for example, hemoglobin level and number of people sampled with said hemoglobin level). This generates a bell-shaped curve. The graph of the normal distribution gives us both the mean and standard deviations from the mean. If the standard deviation is ...


2

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by the occurrence of venous or arterial thrombosis and/or an adverse pregnancy outcome due to the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) 1. There are to types of APS: either primary or secondary in the presence of an underlying disease, usually systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Thrombocytopenia (low ...


1

Most PT assays contain polybrene, which neutralizes heparin. According to "Coagulation assays and anticoagulant monitoring": Polybrene is a positively charged material that will neutralize UFH, and this is a component of many clot-based reagents. Polybrene is added to the majority of PT reagents (clinicians may want to confirm that the PT reagent used in ...


1

Many conditions can lead to fetal hydrops. The most significant contributing factor is the fetal homeostatic response to relative hypoxia. For a number of reasons, the fetus is more prone to the acccumulation of interstitial fluid. This can be triggered by hypoxia as the fetal circulation responds in an attempt to maintain oxygenation of the tissues. From ...


1

It's just a misspelling of haematology, which is the British spelling of hematology. Hematology and haematology are synonyms, and there is no such word hemeatology. From the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary (emphasis mine): hematology noun he·ma·tol·o·gy Medical Definition of hematology plural hematologies : a medical science that ...


1

C-reactive protein synthesis is driven primarily by interleukin-6 IL-6 induces CRP production in the liver by activating Janus kinases. Signal transducers and activators of transcription subsequently switch on the CRP gene expression, leading to the production of CRP. but fever is caused by a range of cytokines including IL-6, IL-1, TNF-a. So, at the ...


1

There are no stupid ideas, this is a very good question. Unfortunately the answer is you can't do this - what determines the blood type is the presence of antigens on the surface of red blood cells. Simply put, antigens can trigger certain responses from the immune system. Here are the four types: Type A: Only the A antigen on red cells (B antibody in the ...


1

The first recorded blood transfusion was done on dogs in 1665. Two years later, blood was successfully transferred from a sheep to a human. In 1818, James Blundell, an obstetrician, successfully treated a patient with postpartum hemorrhage with her husband's blood. The main problem that stood in the way of the development of blood transfusion was the ...


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