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10

Sports drinks contain trivial amounts of potassium. For example, one US gallon of Gatorade contains 480 mg of potassium, which is roughly comparable to a single banana and much less than a sweet potato. The US RDA for potassium is 4700 mg per day, so you could safely drink 10 gallons per day if you consumed nothing else. The dangers of potassium are vastly ...


7

Myocarditis itself is not a virus nor is it contagious - the term refers an inflammation of the myocardium (a.k.a. the heart muscle). A viral infection is probably the most common cause of myocarditis but there's many different viruses that can have it as a complication including: Adenovirus (the common cold) Hepatitis B/C Parvovirus HIV Rubella the list ...


7

Hypovolemic shock may be a reversible cause of cardiac arrest (5) Mechanisms: Acute cardiac ischemia and myocardial infarction: these are due to decreased oxygen supply to the heart itself (remember that shock itself represent global ischemia)(1)(2) pH changes, especially acidemia: when shock reaches to a irreversible state so much acidosis has developed(1)...


7

No, a heart does not necessarily stop beating during cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest occurs any tine the heart cannot pump blood to the brain at a rate/volume sufficient for the patient to remain conscious. From your second link: To understand SCA [sudden cardiac arrest], it helps to understand how the heart works. The heart has an electrical system that ...


6

If the runner can't drink then dehydration will be the first thing that takes him out. Water is the one essential thing he's going to lose rapidly through sweat, urine and respiration, and as he loses it he's going to lose electrolytes along with it. The end result will be disabling muscle cramps, weakness, and exhaustion. If he somehow continues on ...


6

To make it simple: There are two types of fat: unsaturated ("good fat") and saturated and trans fat ("bad fat"). Current dietary guidelines (American Heart Association, WHO) suggest that saturated fats should be limited to <10% (5-6% for those who would benefit from lowering of LDL cholesterol), and trans fats to <1% of energy or as low as possible. ...


5

It's not, unless you are using the term "base" to refer to the aortic root of the heart rather than the apex. A systolic "crescendo-decrescendo murmur" is the classic description for the murmur resulting from aortic stenosis. The aortic valve is best auscultated at the right upper sternal border. In the below diagram, the actual valve locations inside the ...


5

It simply means visually exposing the tissues the surgeon needs to operate on. For example, if the surgeon needs to cut or suture inside one of the chambers and it's full of blood, they would be unable to see the tissue they're working on; therefore, they expose the surgical field by aspirating (suctioning out) the blood blocking their view. https://medical-...


5

The above answer is correct: no they can't function independently. I want to build on that answer with a couple additional points. Consider that your heart beats while you hold your breath - but it needs oxygen, so if your lungs stop for a long time they aren't exchanging O2 and CO2 so your heart muscle will eventually stop. Conversely if your heart stops,...


5

You're overlooking one important point: Both the heart and lungs are living tissue too, and without both circulating blood and oxygen they will die just like all the other tissues in the body. So no, neither one can continue to function without the other. As for CPR, I don't see how anything would change. Without circulating blood in the lungs, no gas ...


4

A regular caffeine consumer will likely develop a partial or complete tolerance to many caffeine effects and side effects, including increased heart rate. Tolerance develops within few days of regular caffeine consumption and disappears within few days of caffeine discontinuation. Tolerance to the Humoral and Hemodynamic Effects of Caffeine in Man (PubMed ...


4

The murmur from HOCM is from the mitral valve leaflet jamming into the septum, also called systolic anterior motion (SAM). This disappears when you increase the volume of LV because if you increase the volume, the ventricle becomes more distended and the leaflet is further away from the septum, so you have less murmur that can be heard. MVP murmur decreases ...


3

For calculation of Bp and CO, Bp = CO * TPR CO = SV * HR Where tpr is total peripheral resistance, HR is heart rate(bpm), SV is stroke volume SV = End diastolic vol - end systolic vol Now, there isn't any direct graphs for relation between BP and SV, theoretically we can see BP varies linearly with SV. However more important are changes which are ...


3

Your understanding about the mechanism by which the K+ ions leak out of the cardiac cell during ischaemia is correct. But, regarding the latter part, lets discuss what is the situation of K+ ions in a normal cardiac cell. In a normal cardiac cell, the concentration of K+ ions is more inside compared to the outside of the cell (150mM inside as compared to 4mM ...


3

It's been my understanding that a buildup of lactic acid (aka lactate) eventually causes the muscles to stop being able to process glucose. This article from Scientific American describes the processes the muscles use to convert to an anaerobic process as muscle performance outpaces oxygen supplies. The pertinent passage:A side effect of high lactate levels ...


3

In children, right atrial thrombosis is associated with placement of a central venous catheter. Berman W Jr, Fripp RR, Yabek SM, Wernly J, Corlew S. Great vein and right atrial thrombosis in critically ill infants and children with central venous lines. Chest. 1991 Apr;99(4):963-7. PubMed PMID: 2009803. https://pmlegacy.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2009803 Rizzi ...


3

The consensus view is given here. So, the views of James O'Keefe are not widely accepted in the medical community. Suppose, however, that the adverse effects of strenuous long endurance exercise he argues for, will be rigorously established. Even then, there is still an issue with the diet as a confounding variable. According to O'Keefe, the U-shaped curve ...


3

I believe the term you're looking for is cardiac sympathetic denervation (CSD). This is a fairly non-technical explanation of the procedure. It can be left side only (LCSD), right side only (RCSD), or bilateral (BCSD). In short, it's a procedure of last resort to control ventricular arrhythmias when drugs and endocardial ablation procedures have failed.


3

This is a very interesting question. Thank you. Just as a small background on pectus excavatum (PE) (also known as "funnel chest"). It is characterised by depression of the sternum that begins over the midportion of the manubrium and progressing inward through the xiphoid process: (from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pectus-excavatum/...


2

Yes, this can basically be accomplished via plastination, whereby they replace the normal water in tissue with a form of silicone. You can use it on virtually any kind of tissue; first time I walked into an anatomy lab I grabbed a large slice of something... about 1-inch thick, with a large hole in its center and began wondering what it was. Only when I ...


2

The mechanism is depicted in the diagram you posted, most obvious in "A": ECG (and any voltage measurement) is based on a potential difference You don't measure the voltage at one spot, you measure the difference between two spots. Those spots are depicted in the diagram with a (-) and (+) symbol, although the (-) is left out of BCD. In A and D, the ...


2

The article linked from the question mentions several benefits of coconut water, such as high mineral content, antioxidant activity, preventative effect against diabetes, kidney stones and high cholesterol levels. It is clearly said in the article that the evidence comes from animal studies and that they haven't found any human studies that would confirm ...


2

Question: Does eating (fatty) fish help to lower high blood pressure or does it help only when eaten instead of red meat? Answer: Merely increasing fish, including oily fish, consumption without other dietary changes (especially losing excessive weight) may not help to reduce blood pressure. FISH Food Groups and Risk of Hypertension: A Systematic Review ...


1

While you seem to be asking several questions in this thread, I will try to answer them as well as I can. Is chronic fatigue syndrome a symptom of myocarditis? No, chronic fatigue syndrome can not be a symptom of myocarditis because CFS is a specific, separate medical condition that is pathophysiologically understood to be neurological, immunological, or ...


1

Unlike atrioventricular valves, semilunar valves' leaflets are concave, somewhat like shallow bags, which, during the diastole are filled with blood and therefore are pushed back to touch one another and so close the valve opening. Here's a good gif to visualise. Some reference: 4 Valves of the Heart: What Are They & How They Work


1

TL;DR An AED stops the heart from beating entirely (beneficial in some situations), and has nothing to do with the death of cells during a heart attack. The rhythm of the heart is regulated by electrical signals which are controlled by the sinoatrial node and the atrioventricular node. An adequate simulation of this can be seen in this gif: Source for ...


1

Capsaicin (the molecule responsible for spicyness) is a very lipophylic substance, meaning that it dissolves very easily and in great amounts in oil. It's not very soluble in water, however. When you eat chilli peppers capsaicin is released to your saliva, which is basically water. And being such, the amount released is limited. However, if you leave ...


1

The Ventricular Septal Defects represent 30% of all the congenital cardiac defects. Important is to underline that the interventricular septum has a membranosus part (superior) and a muscular part (inferior). There are also 4 types of VSD: Perimembranosus: under aortic valve. gives a aortic insufficiency due to the prolapse of the right coronaric cuspid ...


1

No cooking oils at all should be used. While saturated fats are very unhealthy as pointed out in M. Arrowsmith's answer, there is a problem with using unsaturated oils as well. We should first note that there is no need to fry food, you can steam or boil your food, and add whole foods containing fats like avocados, walnuts, and chia seeds. There are no ...


1

In short, there seems to be no evidence that acute caffeine overdose by drinking a great amount of energy drink would result in heart enlargement (hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy). It could cause severe caffeine overdose, though. 8 oz (237 ml) of an energy drink can contain 150 mg of caffeine (Mayo Clinic). 20 such drinks would give you 3,000 mg (3 ...


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