10

This is a good and pragmatic question. Just to give some insight, the benefits of aspirin in high risk patients (with acute or previous vascular disease or some other predisposing condition) are explicitly shown. I recommend reading the freely available meta-analysis published in BMJ in 2002. Naturally, the patients without any disease or predisposing ...


9

In short, no. It is important to understand the meaning of risk and the balance of possible harm caused versus positive effect made by an intervention. Patients with diabetes have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) but not all patients with diabetes has CVD. Actually The European cardiovascular disease risk assessment model suggests that diabetes ...


8

Ventricular septal defect A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a congenital defect of the central wall (septum) of the heart. This septum divides the right ventricle of the heart from the left ventricle. The right side of the heart receives blood from the head and body (via the vena cava) and pumps it to the lungs to be oxygenated. The left side of the ...


7

It is difficult to say, because the matter is controversial and in both cases it is still being investigated. The general rule for any medicine is that the benefits should outweigh the risks. (1) Both types of medicines that you ask about have some potentially serious side-effects. For aspirin they go from gastrointestinal disturbances, mucosal damage and ...


7

Eisenmenger syndrome is a clinical syndrome. A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is an anatomic lesion. They are related in that Eisenmenger syndrome can be caused by a VSD (among other things). VSD A ventricular septal defect is a (typically) congenital opening between the right and left ventricle, caused by a failure of the ventricular septum, or wall ...


7

Myocarditis itself is not a virus nor is it contagious - the term refers an inflammation of the myocardium (a.k.a. the heart muscle). A viral infection is probably the most common cause of myocarditis but there's many different viruses that can have it as a complication including: Adenovirus (the common cold) Hepatitis B/C Parvovirus HIV Rubella the list ...


6

I can offer a UK perspective on this, using guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE): Cardiovascular disease: risk assessment and reduction, including lipid modification. There is also a useful summary here. You mention the case of secondary prevention in cardiovascular disease (CVD), when statins are used in people ...


6

To make it simple: There are two types of fat: unsaturated ("good fat") and saturated and trans fat ("bad fat"). Current dietary guidelines (American Heart Association, WHO) suggest that saturated fats should be limited to <10% (5-6% for those who would benefit from lowering of LDL cholesterol), and trans fats to <1% of energy or as low as possible. ...


5

First, I should say that I think this question should be closed. It's clearly a request for personal medical advice, but apparently no one else shares that view, so I'll go ahead and answer. I would not want to reduce it any further. Then taking a supplement known to lower blood pressure would seem like a bad idea. This study compared the effects of ...


5

There is, unfortunately, no yes or no answer to this, especially not on-line. However, these information can help: There can be various underlying causes of fainting, mostly cardiovascular or neurological. It is important to note that same pathophysiological mechanisms may be a part of different clinical syndromes. Some of these (classification adjusted for ...


5

I checked myself and found that yes, prediabetes is also a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Prediabetes is the condition when fasting blood sugar is 100-125 mg/dl or 2 hour blood sugar is 140-200 mg/dl (more than 125 fasting or >200 after 2 hours will be diagnostic of diabetes). A number of longitudinal studies have shown that prediabetes is ...


5

Why is there not enough research on heart stent and exercise? There is research of stents and exercise! How much is enough? In fact there are exercise programmes, known as cardiac rehabilitation designed to help those who have had some forms of cardiac disease or procedures-- including stent insertions. Cardiac rehabilitation has evidence to suggest that ...


5

It's not, unless you are using the term "base" to refer to the aortic root of the heart rather than the apex. A systolic "crescendo-decrescendo murmur" is the classic description for the murmur resulting from aortic stenosis. The aortic valve is best auscultated at the right upper sternal border. In the below diagram, the actual valve locations inside the ...


5

Yes, or at least, that's what this article in a reputable medical journal says and there is no reason to be more skeptical of it than the normal skepticism that any isolated article deserves. The 10 year IRR they find is 0.04 (95% CI 0.01-0.36), after adjusting for age and BMI, which is a pretty strong effect. The article is not claiming this is the best or ...


5

The mentioned paper has been published in BMJ Open in 2015: The Association Between Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Mortality in the Elderly. A systematic review. The NHS article mentions the limitations of the review: only participants older than 60 years were included, only LDL (but not HDL) cholesterol was investigated, the effect of statins (...


5

The NHS page you linked to does quite a good job of explaining why the study that puts forward the claim that there isn't a link doesn't actually quite say that with any degree of certainty. They are a bit wishy-washy about it and the British Heart Foundation takes a somewhat tougher stance LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), along with other types of cholesterol are ...


4

I checked literature on this and found that following general measures are helpful to prevent acute mountain sickness, high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE): These conditions generally occur at altitudes higher than 2500 meters. Beyond that, one should not ascend more than 300-500 meters per day. Slow ascent, e.g. ...


4

Maybe. Depends on the 95-year old... and the 25-year old. A heart failure diagnosis isn't just the process of getting older; it has objective criteria. I expect most 95-year olds would score above zero on this scale, many quite highly, but not all of them would. And, of course, we know there are 25-year olds who would score highly too, so I'd say it's a ...


4

Can aging of the heart be equivalent to having (mild) heart failure? Absolutely. A large part of aging is the process of telomeres shortening with each cell division, making our DNA more vulnerable. As more DNA damage accumulates, more cells in the heart (and everywhere else in the body) become dysfunctional - that's essentially what aging is. So while ...


4

Currently, there is no definitive way to predict maximum heart rate for a single individual. There are formulae that can give an approximation, but about the only way to get a good estimate on a personal level is to do a maximal treadmill test with monitoring. As far as the 220-age, that is a bad myth, and wasn't based on a study, but simple observation of ...


4

Dizziness or giddiness during exercise is classically caused by obstruction to the outflow of the heart i.e. aortic stenosis (see MedlinePlus). This condition is most commonly seen in either young persons due to bicuspid aortic valve or in elderly with sclerotic aortic valves. In developing countries, it may occur due to rheumatic heart disease also. When ...


4

Apart from information on differences given in two excellent answers here, there is a major difference in treatment of these two conditions. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) before development of Eisenmenger syndrome can be treated by surgery. Usually the defect is closed using a patch. Closure can sometimes be done without surgery using devices inserted ...


4

Cyanosis refers to a blue discolouration of the skin caused by hypoxia (inadequate oxygenation of the arterial blood supply). It is the presence or absence of this hypoxia that is actually the distinction between these two types of heart disease. Firstly, some heart anatomy. The right side of the heart receives blood from the head and body (via the vena ...


3

Unfortunately, you can't make a probabilistic estimate if you will contract heart disease or some form of cancer - there are too many variables to consider. How big is the room? How many people are smoking? Some people smoke all their life and die without cancer or disease - though poor lung function. But I found some interesting information, we can use it ...


3

Following were independent risk factors found in the large Interheart study (http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2804%2917018-9/abstract): 1. Smoking 2. Diabetes 3. High blood lipid levels 4. High blood pressure 5. Abdominal obesity 6. Psychosocial stress 7. Lack of regular physical exercise 8. Lack of regular fruits and ...


3

I checked and found following coagulation problems may occur in patients with congenital cyanotic heart diseases (commonest example tetralogy of Fallot): Thrombotic episodes may occur due to: Hyperviscocity due to markedly elevated haematocrit (red cell mass), which in turn occurs due to chronic hypoxia and cyanosis Iron deficiency leading to spherical ...


3

There are three types of heart attacks: unstable angina pectoris, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarct (NSTEMI) and ST-elevation myocardial infarct (STEMI). Choosing between thrombolysis and angioplasty matters only in the STEMI. Which is better: thrombolysis (treatment with clot busting medication) or primary angioplasty (an invasive procedure for ...


3

There's very little you could do in terms of lifestyle changes. Quitting smoking, stopping excessive drinking, and stopping the use of stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamines are the only things I can think of that would have fairly immediate results, but I doubt it would be enough to prevent that arterial plaque from rupturing that's going to cause the ...


3

This is a very interesting question. Thank you. Just as a small background on pectus excavatum (PE) (also known as "funnel chest"). It is characterised by depression of the sternum that begins over the midportion of the manubrium and progressing inward through the xiphoid process: (from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pectus-excavatum/...


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