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Higher concentrations of alcohol are actually less effective (that Q&A is specific for isopropyl, but the same is true for ethanol, their mechanism of sterilization is the same), see also here. Summarizing from those answers: higher concentrations of alcohol don't penetrate into cells as well. This page from the CDC also discusses optimal alcohol ...


7

The virus causing COVID-19 infects the respiratory tract. It is spread in droplets of moisture when an infected person sneezes, coughs, and exhales. These droplets can be inhaled directly and can also end up on surfaces, where they can be picked up on your hands and then spread to your face. The WHO recommends hand washing and avoiding touching your face ...


6

Hand sanitizers have bactericidal and virucidal properties that when used properly in sufficient quantity for at least 20 seconds kill the vast majority of pathogenic organisms/viruses. Alcohol-based sanitizers are superior in spectrum of what it kills. However, you are correct that it doesn't kill everything, and some of what it doesn't kill is pretty ...


6

Here's an article that I found helpful, to understand why washing hands with soap is so helpful, and how it helps (Pall Thordarson is a professor of chemistry at the University of New South Wales, Sydney): Why does soap work so well on the Sars-CoV-2, the coronavirus and indeed most viruses? The short story: because the virus is a self-assembled ...


5

The safest hand sanitizer from the perspective of reducing antibiotic resistance is the alcohol-based sanitizer. It's effective against a wide variety of microorganisms. Remember, though, that hand sanitizers don't remove dirt and chemicals from your skin, and all of the ingredients in hand sanitizers are left to fully absorb into your skin. Alcohol makes ...


5

Yes, the virus can be made un-harmful by soap and water. From the Economist: The outer proteins sit athwart a membrane provided by the cell in which the virion was created. This membrane, made of lipids, breaks up when it encounters soap and water, which is why hand-washing is such a valuable barrier to infection. This should give you enough key ...


4

There are obvious sufficient data and enough evidence that all virus are transmitted by droplet infection (body contact) and shake hands. Washing hand makes sense as the infection is happening mostly yourself if you have contact with your hands in your face, mouth, nose, eyes. So don't shake hands, clean your hands by washing or desinfecting after ...


3

Ingredients listed on the product from the photo: White soft paraffin (known as petroleum jelly) and cetostearyl alcohol are occlusive agents that decrease water loss through the skin, so they act as moisturizers (Table 4, PubMed). Sodium lauryl sulfate is a detergent (a surfactant), so it acts as a soap. Water and soap do not remove paraffin, so the ...


2

This question seems to ask in which situations hand sanitizers can be a suitable substitute for water and soap. Techniques for hand hygiene Soap and water is still considered the gold standard for hand hygiene. When using soap and water, it is important to wet the hands first. Then apply 3 to 5 mL of soap to the hands, avoiding bar soap. Next ...


2

"Situations Leading to Reduced Effectiveness of Current Hand Hygiene against Infectious Mucus from Influenza Virus-Infected Patients", a study published in "MSphere", compared using "antiseptic hand rubbing" (hand sanitizer) against "antiseptic hand washing" (washing hands with antiseptic or antimicrobial soap), and found that washing hands is effective at ...


2

According to this study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10656352 "Alternative"/"natural" cleaning products (vinegar and baking soda) were compared with regular disinfectants and tested against a variety of human pathogens including antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The conclusion found that "a variety of commercial [excluding the natural alternatives] ...


1

There is a report from Taiwan where it was described that installing hand wash stations in the emergency department was the only infection control measure which was significantly associated with the protection from healthcare workers from acquiring the SARS-CoV, indicating that hand hygiene can have a protective effect Healthcare workers are at risk of ...


1

New research from China indicates that the novel coronavirus is also spread by fecal-oral transmission, not just by respiratory droplets or environmental contact. Hong Shan, MD, PhD, of Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, in Zhuhai, Guangdong Province, and colleagues noted that the gastrointestinal tract is a welcoming environment for the ...


1

Yes, to a degree. Since the stuff we touch will be on our hands and the stuff that's on our hands will be on what we touch. CDC: Quickly reduces number of microbes, but not all Less effective in greasy or dirty circumstances So if the handle is greasy or visibly dirty the amount of microbes that are killed are decreased. It may be better to just grab ...


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