8

Menstrual blood is composed of a mixture of blood (blood cells), vaginal secretions, endometrial cells and inflammatory cells. I have found no study investigating the change in colour of mentruation blood . However, the presence of endometrial cells (mucosa lining of the uterus) and necrotic cells (from the endometrium) is supposed to be highest during the ...


8

Dysmenorrhea (pain with menstruation) can be primary or secondary. The first thing a woman should do is see a physician to determine which kind of dysmenorrhea she has. Primary dysmenorrhea is painful menstruation with a normal pelvic examination (no causes can be determined). It is is by far the most common gynecologic problem in menstruating women, can ...


8

The most common ways to diagnose endometriosis are as follows: Palpation/physical exam Imaging test (MRI, Ultrasound) Laparoscopy* Laparoscopy, where the doctor makes a small incision to insert a camera tube into the pelvic area for a visual examination, is the only definitive way to diagnose endometriosis. In each case, the doctor is looking for cysts or ...


7

[I]s it logical/healthy to take in oral contraceptives on a regular basis even if one is not engaged in intercourse? There are several reasons to take oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) that have nothing to do with contraception. In that way, they can be considered medications to treat medical conditions, not contraceptives. In the case of women who bleed ...


6

PCOS can make your body resistant to insulin. When your body's cells become too resistant to insulin, that's called type 2 diabetes. Metformin makes your body more sensitive to insulin, so it can help prevent type 2 diabetes in PCOS patients who do not yet have it. Metformin doesn't treat PCOS itself, and it's not approved by the FDA to treat PCOS. Its use ...


5

I'll assume by "stomach", you mean abdominal pain, probably lower abdominal pain. And yes, tampons can cause lower abdominal pain in the presence of endometriosis (ectopic endometrial tissue). The symptoms of endometriosis can include pain on micturition, defecation, tampon or diaphragm insertion, increased pain with menses, intercourse, etc. Use of tampons ...


4

Laparoscopic coagulation of endometrial spots itself is one of the clinically approved treatment for endometriosis. Though by evidence-based medicine the evidence for laparoscopic treatment can vary from low to moderate (depending what symptoms patient has). Mirena is a hormone releasing intrauterine device for which evidence is moderate by evidence based ...


3

If we are assuming that there is no valid reason1 for a c-section, a c-section is obsolete per definition. Any operation has risks and strains the body: The anesthesia, the cutting of the body to name the two obvious points. If an operation is not indicated, it shouldn’t be performed. So, if c-section are not medically indicated, they shouldn’t be performed. ...


1

No, according to https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4149942/ "Single and double donor sperm intrauterine insemination cycles: Does double IUI increase clinical pregnancy rates?": Single and double donor IUI cycles had similar clinical pregnancy rates. This large data set did not demonstrate a benefit to routine double IUI in donor sperm ...


1

I can't answer the question specific to abortions, as I do not perform abortions (for this reason). But certainly in vaginal deliveries and C sections, the placenta is always checked carefully by the physician to ensure that no part of the placenta was retained in the uterus. The reason is that retained fetal tissue is a risk for post-partum hemorrhage ...


1

Making an assumption of a diagnosis of a such serious condition as endometriosis and starting with treatment that can have potential severe side effects without making the actual diagnosis is not serious for a doctor. Abdominal adhesions from other causes, like PCOS or pelvic inflammatory disease, can cause similar symptoms. And there are other much more ...


1

During birth, the pelvic floor is stretched significantly, and the stretch is probable to never get back to the way it was exactly before. The NHS states it takes a few days for the swelling and openness [...] to reduce [...] after your baby is born. An interview on the independent says that it should at most take 6 weeks for the vagina to get roughly back ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible