Currently no, but there is work in progress that will allow extremely premature babies to be grown in artificial uteri. It has so far worked well for baby goats.
Taking a partly developed foetus out of the mother? This is currently not an available method.
However, there are methods out there for the problems you described:
One method allowed in the UK is called a "three-parent baby" and the following guardian article explains it fairly well:
The procedure replaces a small amount of faulty DNA ...
A single meal can decrease the risk of hypothermia during a few km travel in severe cold. Consequently, it could also decrease the risk of frostbite, but lack of studies prevents making any reliable conclusions.
Dietary protein generates more heat than carbohydrates and these more than fat.
Proper hydration can contribute to prevention of ...
No, first you should go throw an IVF process (egg retrieval process and a fertilization by sperm in a lab). Once the embryos are created, after 3 or 5 days they can be transferred to a gestational carrier who will carry the baby until the birth. This process is called gestational surrogacy. In gestational surrogacy, the surrogate is not genetically linked to ...