25

The typical scenario of a seizure is: loss of consciousness uncontrolled movements recovery The conduct to adopt during each of these phases follows: During 1. and 2. The person will fall on the ground if standing and may get hurt, either due to the fall or due to the uncontrolled movements that will follow. The only things you can (and should) do at ...


24

You as an untrained bystander can do little to nothing. Professionally trained paramedics could (as an example) pull the leg and thus remove tension between two bone membranes (periostei) and in a best case scenario alleviate all pain. The bone itself has hardly any nerve endings, it is only the periosteum that causes pain. This only works in a few cases. ...


18

Short anwser: Never put butter, oil, etc, on a burn. This would worsen the burn. Putting butter, oil, or anything else would trap heat and make the burn deeper. It would also make further treatment harder and would make the risk of infection higher: Don’t apply burn ointments. Like butter (or mayonnaise), these ointments, usually oil-based, won’t ...


11

These are the steps that you want to take: If you can see the snake, be prepared to describe it. DO NOT attempt to catch it. If you can get a quick picture with a camera/cell phone, do so. Get the person out of biting distance of the snake. (Avoid getting bitten yourself) Keep the person calm, with the wound below the level of the heart, preferably lying ...


11

That problem is already solved for you, at least in the US. Current guidelines issued by the American Heart Association no longer require rescue breathing. Chest compressions alone are now the standard for community CPR (vs professional CPR). They refer to it as hands only CPR. On an anecdotal note, I've done mouth-to-mouth on a perfect stranger. He was a ...


10

Note: The following is excerpted from an article written in 2005. For lay (Non trained) people, there are more updated recommendations. The following is an example of the process, not the current recommendations. To be effective, CPR must restore adequate coronary and cerebral blood flow. Interruptions in chest compressions lower coronary perfusion ...


9

In the case of snake bite, the protocol to apply varies slightly depending on the country. What follows is based on the guidelines provided by the National Health Service of England, the National Institutes of Health of the United States and the Ministry of Interior of France (this last document is the national team first-aid guidelines applied by firemen ...


9

It does differ from country to country. For example, in France (As I'm sure you are aware), if a person fails to render assistance to a person in danger then they can by held liable. This falls under the "duty to rescue" concept. Here in the United States (and elsewhere), this is covered by something called the "Good Samaritan Law", which is intended to ...


8

The basic idea is that people with pulmonary diseases that involve chronic hypoventilation rely on mild hypoxia to stimulate respiration. To understand this, consider a basic homeostatic feedback loop that controls respiratory drive. During a breath hold, carbon dioxide levels rise and oxygen levels fall. Carbon dioxide diffuses across the blood-brain ...


8

Many patients who have been diagnosed with breast cancer have their axillary lymph nodes removed. One of the main roles of the lymphatic system is to assist in draining extra-cellular fluid to the thoracic duct and ultimately back into the blood stream. Therefore, when axillary lymph nodes are removed, there is risk of developing lymphodema (swelling) in ...


7

Ah, but they can and do. A non-rebreather (NRB) mask with 100% O2 flowing at 12-15 L/min will provide about 90% O2 concentration to an adult. This is true even for the largest adult in severe respiratory distress. There are a couple of reasons for this. First, the 3 liters figure you cited is the inspiratory reserve volume (IRV). Here are two definitions ...


7

My Grandmother died of a ischemic stroke (TIA followed by blockage) after weaning herself off of blood thinners because she didn't "need the medicine". Huge issue with his advice - the large majority of strokes are due to a clot or another form of vessel blockage. The rest caused by a hemorrhage (you'll have the worst headache of your life) while bleeding ...


7

With a very small budget If you do not want to spend any (or very little) money on it, I recommend filling a small garbage bag with wet sand and then placing a cushion or pillow over it. I'm guessing if you want to add a realistic touch, you could place some small sticks of wood in the garbage bag to act as ribs. Unfortunately, the above answer is all ...


7

The MOLST (Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment) form is an update to the non-hospital DNR, which as you saw in a previous answer has very stringent (and frankly unrealistic) requirements. The MOLST is printed on bright pink paper, and EMS providers are trained to look for it upon entering a house. In addition, patients are able to wear a metal ...


6

If the weapon is still in the wound : don't touch anything and call the appropriate emergency system (varies from country to country). Never attempt to remove any penetrating object still in situ as this may cause more serious bleeding If the wound is open, apply little pressure on it with clean clothes. And call the appropriate emergency system, keep ...


6

Tetanus Vaccine If you get a tetanus shot every five years you are good to go. The recommended dose of tetanus toxoid (vaccine) is every ten years but since: In a small percentage of individuals, antitoxin levels fall below the minimal protective level before 10 years have elapsed, to ensure adequate protective antitoxin levels, persons who sustain a ...


6

TL;DR: The only time you should induce vomiting is if the patient is showing no signs or symptoms and you are directed to by poison control or EMS dispatch. If you have a pill overdose situation and there are any complications such as altered level of consciousness, difficulty breathing, etc., then you want to get emergency medical (EMS) involved ...


6

It depends Extended contact of urine on skin will cause skin irritation and eventual breakdown. On the other hand, that water may contain flesh eating bacteria. This is a situation of a lesser of two evils. Each wound is different and the causes numerous. The only reason you would need to "clean" a wound is if there is something in the wound that presents ...


6

The only studies I'm aware of come from the Emergency Medicine Journal, but other should exist for sure. Some say it has drawbacks (discomfort, pressure sore) and that alternatives such as the vacuum mattress should be preferred: Comparison of a long spinal board and vacuum mattress for spinal immobilisation The use of the spinal board after the pre-...


5

In Europe we use 30/2 for adults and 15/2 for children. For children heart problems are rare, so the focus lies on breathing (we also start with 5 breaths). With adults the focus lies on chest compressions, hence the double amount. There is a lot of research going on and as a result of the research, the guidelines are changed, each 5 years. (Last time the ...


5

Call the emergency services or the anti-poisoning centre right away. Don't waste your time looking for effects on the internet. Keep calm, and: Tell your name, phone number, location, Tell this is for a poisoning, and tell the victim's gender and age Tell what was swallowed, how, how much and how long ago Don't hang up the phone before instructed to do so ...


5

Wound cleansing is especially important when bitten, as it has been shown to remarlably reduce the risk of infections from animal bites in general, and in some animal studies, the likelihood of rabies infection. This treatment should be immediate: irrigate with water or diluted water povidone-iodine solution. You should consult a doctor as soon as possible....


5

Adult pads have a larger area. And they provide more energy. The higher energy is needed because most adults have more body mass than children. Lower energy is more suitable for children. Source I teach CPR according to the European standards (ERC). You can use an AED with adult pads on a child, but you should put one pad on the front and the other on the ...


5

So this was an interesting one for me, because I never seriously tried to consider it. Most online sources that claim this say it's an "old army trick," but after reading several perspectives on wound care in the military, I don't know that is true. The actual historical roots on this idea I could find actually go back to reference a slave owner using it ...


5

So let's assume you're speaking of a large bone, like the arm (humerus, radius or ulna) or leg (femur, tibia or fibula), but not the skull, spine or pelvis. A good rule of thumb: the larger the bone, the more serious it is. A second rule: if the skin is broken (the bone is sticking out), it is serious. So, if you suspect a hand or foot fracture with no ...


5

For starters, make sure you or someone close by is calling for an ambulance, because you need that more advanced help started in your direction ASAP. Get the person out of the heat, into air conditioning or at least out of the sun. If there are no air conditioned areas close by then shade is next best. Get them undressed if possible, soak them with cold ...


5

The only thing that keeps a patient in cardiac arrest alive is constant, high-quality chest compression. Cardioversion ("shocking") of a patient aims to return the heart to normal (sinus) rhythm in the case that a cardiac arrest is due to a dysrhythmia. If it works, great - return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) will be achieved and there will be signs ...


4

In short, the answer (regarding diseases) is yes. Anytime you deal with blood or other bodily fluid, you risk catching a variety of diseases. The risk is compounded if you are not wearing proper protective equipment, washing your hands after handling them and covering breaks in skin before handling. Here is a list of the diseases you could end up with as ...


4

It all depends on the bone that is (or might be) broken, and on the overall condition of the patient. Call an ambulance for a fractured skull, vertebra or hip. Call an ambulance for open fractures (bone piercing through the skin). Call an ambulance if the patient is/has been unconscious or under shock. Call an ambulance if you are not sure whether you need ...


3

Kendrick Extrication Devices (KED) are used during extrications (Such as in automobiles) where space is limited, and a backboard can't be used safely. Generally the mnemonic for securing the straps is My Baby Looks Hot Tonight. Middle Body (Torso) Legs Head Top It is to be noted, that recently in the US, the recommended order is My Baby Looks Totally Hot, ...


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