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The initial Russian announcement was bluster. From the NYT's vaccine tracker: On Aug. 11, President Vladimir V. Putin announced that a Russian health care regulator had approved the vaccine, renamed Sputnik V, before Phase 3 trials had even begun. Vaccine experts decried the move as risky, and Russia later walked back the announcement, saying that the ...


12

Answering my own question since I believe I've found the answer. According to this source, The senior minister at the department, Mikhail Murashko, announced last week that a nationwide mass vaccination program is planned to begin in October. Murashko added that all expenses will be covered by the government. Therefore right now (September) the vaccine ...


6

The level at which herd immunity is achieved varies with the communicability of the disease. The standard rule of thumb is that the percentage of the population that has to be immune is pc = (1 - 1 / R0). The value of R0 for SARS-CoV-2 is not known precisely, but is thought to be between 1.4 and 3.9. This means that herd immunity would be achieved at ...


5

Well, after I commented that this might be hard to find, I took 10 seconds and found what looks like a reasonable recent meta analysis, though it's not limited to the US: Franklin, J. C., Ribeiro, J. D., Fox, K. R., Bentley, K. H., Kleiman, E. M., Huang, X., ... & Nock, M. K. (2017). Risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors: a meta-analysis of 50 ...


4

Marc Bevand presents this graph of IFR versus age for both COVID-19 and flu: The sources of data are documented on this github page. There is a summary of the sources in the README file. Unfortunately, the IFR data in the graph does not come with error bars. However, most of the underlying sources do include error bars. For instance, Table 1 of "...


3

In children, right atrial thrombosis is associated with placement of a central venous catheter. Berman W Jr, Fripp RR, Yabek SM, Wernly J, Corlew S. Great vein and right atrial thrombosis in critically ill infants and children with central venous lines. Chest. 1991 Apr;99(4):963-7. PubMed PMID: 2009803. https://pmlegacy.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2009803 Rizzi ...


3

Almost every single person in the entire USA has been sick in their lifetime. And the vast majority of everyone has gotten the flu or the common cold. 1 2 This is because they are pretty contagious and there is almost no way of stopping the spread if everyone is out and about. 3 So in the quote above, Ben Shapiro is explaining that the same will happen ...


2

The main way COVID19 spreads (according to experts) is either droplets (short distance, <6ft. short duration, <5 seconds from emission) OR aerosols (long distance, 20ft+, whole room. long duration, >60minutes) Unfortunately, as of July 2020, we still don't know. WHO has updated their modes of transmission: https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/...


2

There is a “standard” definition of the epidemiological measure of the case fatality rate (or case fatality ratio—preferred term) for a disease. This is the number of people diagnosed with a disease who died because of the disease in an interval of time after the diagnosis divided by the number of people who had been diagnosed with the disease in the same ...


2

To question 1, infection of others before symptoms of the carrier Yes, carriers of Covid-19 can infect others before developing noticeable symptoms themselves. There is a study to a very traceable transmission chain in a company in Germany. Person 1 was infected from a from China comming person 0 after January 19, 2020. A person 3 had contact only with ...


2

Modelling has certainly been done but they operate under assumptions that may not be true. For example the one done for Singapore: Findings For the baseline scenario, when R0 was 1·5, the median cumulative number of infections at day 80 was 279 000 (IQR 245 000–320 000), corresponding to 7·4% (IQR 6·5–8·5) of the resident population of Singapore. The ...


2

This implies to me that there will be some sort of genetic signature attached to the virus by the person acting as a vector. The people don't attach anything to the virus, but the viral genome does not stay constant, it accumulates small changes. Those changes are only passed on to people from where the change originally occurs, other copies of the virus in ...


2

Copying from another SE answer by me: The elimination of SARS from the human population occurred via controlling the human-to-human spread through isolation and contact tracing. See https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/70863 for a report on the epidemic and how cases and spread in different locations were handled. SARS was more severe overall, such ...


2

The epidemic curve depends on diagnostic methods and definitions. If your case definition requires a positive rt-PCR without typical clinical symptoms, and you don't do enough testing, then it will appear that your epidemic curve is flattening whereas you are only diagnosing symptomatic and severe cases. In an extreme example Wuhan had thought they had ...


2

You have not made a mistake. Point prevalence must be lower than 1-year prevalence and 1-year prevalence must be lower than lifetime prevalence for a population. In the systematic review, there are 68 studies that provided estimates of point prevalence, 9 that provided estimates of 1-year prevalence and 13 that provided estimates of lifetime prevalence (N=...


2

How about the Cochrane Collaboration? For example, MMR vaccines Vaccines for the common cold influenza vaccines I found this article further. While this article is limited to the flu vaccine for the elderly, I expect that there will be many more arguments in the future. I think the intellectual level of the segment of the population that is emotionally ...


2

The BBC has some clarifications now (Apr 25): A public health agency report this week suggested around a third of people in Stockholm will have been infected by the start of May. That was later revised down to 26% after the agency admitted a calculation error. But several high-profile scientists have offered even greater numbers. Prof Johan Giesecke, ex-...


2

A mask. According to the FDA If worn properly, a surgical mask is meant to help block large-particle droplets, splashes, sprays, or splatter that may contain germs (viruses and bacteria), keeping it from reaching your mouth and nose. Surgical masks may also help reduce exposure of your saliva and respiratory secretions to others. Other types on masks may ...


2

On the other hand, if you want to ask if anybody is working a protein sub-unit vaccine, the answer is yes, NIH announced on Dec 28 that Novavax began phase III trials for NVX-CoV2373. (They are actually conducting concurrent trials in the UK and Mexico too.) According to a story in Science, Novavax uses armyworm moth cells to grow these proteins; the spike ...


1

Mike Ryan wasn't quoted correctly. Here is the explanation of his statement from a virtual press conference (COVID-19 Virtual Press conference transcript - 12 October 2020): AN: Good evening. Hello. This is a question to Dr Ryan. Last week Dr Ryan announced - it was last Monday - that 10% of the world's population might be infected by the COVID so the first ...


1

Your post links to a BBC News article. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-54422023 The BBC News article was reporting about a special meeting of WHO leaders that took place on October 5-6, 2020. The BBC article was posted on October 6, 2020. The WHO meeting and its goals are described here. https://www.who.int/news-room/events/detail/2020/10/05/default-calendar/...


1

The answer to this question is: "we don't know". This is because COVID-19 statistics reported by Russia may be highly questionable. This alone makes its interpretation hard, whether or not the vaccine is widely available by the time the data are published. Even by the time the vaccine is distributed widely, and regardless of its effect on COVID-19 ...


1

Hello and welcome to SE Medical Sciences. I'd recommend not over using acronyms, (you forgot to define 'CRC' as Colorectal Cancer.). It is difficult to know what you mean you mean by 'general population' & 'primary care', regardless could I get some clarification? As Rodrigo de Azevedo rightfully pointed out, this is not quite an epidemiological question....


1

Yes, there are. This study for France says there is a 1.5% chance of a second wave. This article discusses three different papers modelling successive waves of covid (not only two). As usual, conclusions depend on modelling assumptions and different scenarios. For instance, this article states the outcome depends on how R and other factors (whether the virus ...


1

There are described any infections on supermarkets in China. Ten workers became infected in Liaocheng. As a result, there were at least 6 secondary infections. There were 17 cases in Wenzhou. The patient with the earliest symptoms was a female cleaner. As a result, more than 100,000 people were traced. In Tianjin, 6 shop workers and 9 customers were ...


1

Yes, estimating the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection using the TST is not trivial. Use only of the TST to define latent tuberculosis infection requires specification of a cut-point for positivity. There is a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity when selecting this cut-point. In prevalence surveys, this is usually >10 mm induration. ...


1

“ Peer-reviewed IFR estimates for (seasonal) influenza?” This isn’t really an answerable question as is because influenza isn’t an illness. It’s a group of illnesses caused by a pretty wide variety of infectious agents. For starters: and it will vary from year to year: H1N1? H3N2? Yamagata? Victoria? Not equally lethal. Aside: Although nominally it’s not ...


1

3Blue1Brown made a great video (Simulating an Epidemic) showcasing the effects of tweaking various parameters on outbreaks using simulations. Background: His simulation is based on the SIR model, which categorizes a population into people Susceptible to the disease, people Infected with the disease, and people Recovered from the disease. For every unit of ...


1

In https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/managing-epidemics-interactive.pdf the WHO defines stages for epidemics. In this file there is also this description of the last stage: Elimination or eradication: Control of a disease may lead to its elimination, which means that is sufficiently controlled to prevent an epidemic from occurring in a defined ...


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