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The initial Russian announcement was bluster. From the NYT's vaccine tracker: On Aug. 11, President Vladimir V. Putin announced that a Russian health care regulator had approved the vaccine, renamed Sputnik V, before Phase 3 trials had even begun. Vaccine experts decried the move as risky, and Russia later walked back the announcement, saying that the ...


12

The confusion exists because there are conflicting pronouncements from various authoritative sources but also conflicting pronouncements from the same authority. Covid-19 is a respiratory infection spread by droplets that can be aerosolized (nuclear droplets) in certain situations such as by flushing toilets or in certain medical procedures such as ...


12

Answering my own question since I believe I've found the answer. According to this source, The senior minister at the department, Mikhail Murashko, announced last week that a nationwide mass vaccination program is planned to begin in October. Murashko added that all expenses will be covered by the government. Therefore right now (September) the vaccine ...


9

Hands play a major role especially in the transmission of blood-borne, fecal, and respiratory tract viruses. Hand washing after use of bathroom aims at preventing the transmission of pathogens, which rely on faecal-oral transmission, such as rotavirus, noroviruses, enteroviruses in some cases hepatitis A virus (1). It prevents those pathogens from reaching ...


7

As a practicing epidemiologist, I'm actually a little puzzled as to the down-votes for this. The difference between an outbreak and an epidemic is pretty subtle, and neither is all that terribly well defined. The answer: There's not much of a difference. The CDC agrees with me: Occasionally, the amount of disease in a community rises above the ...


7

TL;DR: please WEAR A MASK! (unless your nearby hospitals are out of it, in which case give your masks to them and stay at home) The link you mentioned provides the reason that the CDC likely has in mind (though I agree it doesn't identify it clearly as the reason): The worldwide supply of masks is limited. It's critical that we use them appropriately. [...


6

If I get infected once with the virus which causes a common cold, does that mean I will not get infected with the same strain of the virus ever in my lifetime? It depends on quirks of your immune system and the viral load you're exposed to, but in theory (based on vaccination and other studies), presence of the virus will trigger a suppressive response, ...


6

The level at which herd immunity is achieved varies with the communicability of the disease. The standard rule of thumb is that the percentage of the population that has to be immune is pc = (1 - 1 / R0). The value of R0 for SARS-CoV-2 is not known precisely, but is thought to be between 1.4 and 3.9. This means that herd immunity would be achieved at ...


5

How does one explain 'avoid purines in food' if purine-rich plant food isn't counting? Sustained increase in blood uric acid levels (hyperuricemia) is a risk factor for acute gouty arthritis (Current Pharmaceutical Design). Purines can increase serum uric acid levels. Intake of hypoxanthine, the main purine in organ meats, red meat and seafood, strongly ...


5

Well, after I commented that this might be hard to find, I took 10 seconds and found what looks like a reasonable recent meta analysis, though it's not limited to the US: Franklin, J. C., Ribeiro, J. D., Fox, K. R., Bentley, K. H., Kleiman, E. M., Huang, X., ... & Nock, M. K. (2017). Risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors: a meta-analysis of 50 ...


4

There are three possibilities when someone is coughing on the bus: they don't have Coronavirus -- or even a virus at all. I coughed a lot when my lungs were full of tumours. Some people cough when their asthma is acting up. This is by far the most common case. they do have Coronavirus and are not wearing a mask. You are more than 2 metres away from them. ...


4

I don't understand any choir being compatible with any definition of social distancing. If the German Govt is asking you to practice social distancing it means meeting another person at a distance. You can not continue your choir. What is social distancing? Social distancing measures are steps you can take to reduce the social interaction between people. ...


4

Autoimmunity triggered by vaccination is a documented, but rare occurrence. The current research shows a correlation between autoimmune conditions and elevated levels of HLA proteins. Certain HLA proteins tend to have a predilection for activating the immune system against “self” cells. HLA proteins also can explain why certain people are more prone to ...


4

Question: If HIV is an STI, then why is HIV often listed separately, for example: HIV & Sexually Transmitted Infections Fact sheet STDs and HIV – CDC Fact Sheet What You Need To Know About the Links Between HIV and STDs Reason 1. The articles linked above have "HIV and STI" or "HIV or STDs" in the titles because they describe how a person with a ...


4

This is a good question, and although as you correctly state that HIV is an STI (see STI vs STD vs Sexually Transmitted Virus?) there is a difference with HIV which is one reason why it may be separated from others. It can be thought that HIV is separated from STIs in factsheet titles etc. because HIV is a virus when others are not, but there are other STI ...


4

The following are studies which indicate cancer risks from third hand tobacco smoke which to me seems non-ambiguous. Sleiman, M., Logue, J. M., Luo, W., Pankow, J. F., Gundel, L. A., & Destaillats, H. (2014). Inhalable constituents of thirdhand tobacco smoke: chemical characterization and health impact considerations. Environmental science & ...


4

There are some data about possible causes of vaping-related lung damage, the type of the damage and symptoms, but not about the changes in medical history questionnaires, vaping habits or e-cigarette firmware. Most commonly associated substances were THC and nicotine containing oils. Most of the investigated samples contained very high amounts of vitamin E. ...


4

You're missing two points: First, as of today, the Netherlands had 1413 cases. Second, the Netherlands is part of the Schengen Area. Because of the ease of movement within the area, the US government is treating the entire Area as as single unit for quarantine purposes. (Collectively, the area has about 60,000 cases.)


4

At this time (17-March-2020) the state of New Hampshire has not found evidence of community transmission of the virus, and all 13 cases are associated with overseas travel. You have travelled in from overseas where there is community transmission so the possibility is much higher that you have been infected. The infected in the pre-symptomatic phase are ...


4

One of the issues with COVID-19 is the fact that it is transmissible even by people who are asymptomatic. You've probably heard about R0, which is the basic reproduction rate of a disease, that takes into account transmission modes and contact rate, among other things. I'm not an epidemiologist, but I'm operating under the assumption that someone who is ...


3

In children, right atrial thrombosis is associated with placement of a central venous catheter. Berman W Jr, Fripp RR, Yabek SM, Wernly J, Corlew S. Great vein and right atrial thrombosis in critically ill infants and children with central venous lines. Chest. 1991 Apr;99(4):963-7. PubMed PMID: 2009803. https://pmlegacy.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2009803 Rizzi ...


3

We have a more plausible reason for the reappearance in 1977 of H1N1. The thesis is that a live attenuated version of H1N1 (LAIV) was used by Chinese scientists who innoculated several 1000s military recruits. It likely was not attenuated correctly and reverted to a more virulent form in-vivo leading to the epidemic. Between 1962 and 1973, almost 40,000 ...


3

The most obvious reason ( apart from the fact that 5M workers who lived in Wuhan were allowed to leave and return to their home cities ) is that Covid-19 is most infectious in the immediate period before symptoms develop, whereas influenza is most infectious after symptoms develop. The symptomatic would know they had the infection and would start to self ...


3

In 2018, approximately 7779 people died per day in the US as per the CDC National Vital Statistics System.


3

Almost every single person in the entire USA has been sick in their lifetime. And the vast majority of everyone has gotten the flu or the common cold. 1 2 This is because they are pretty contagious and there is almost no way of stopping the spread if everyone is out and about. 3 So in the quote above, Ben Shapiro is explaining that the same will happen ...


2

Like many health issues that are currently on the rise, anything you can potentially say is vaccine related can also easily be said to be environmental toxin related. There is quite a bit of research on autoimmune issues as it's currently a serious cause for concern to many researchers. It is much more common today than it was 50 years ago and they are ...


2

You are indeed correct! The origins and first usage of the word "patient-zero" was actually a total misinterpretation that was caught on quickly by the media, and has since been perpetuated henceforth. The phrase was coined in the early 1980's in reference to Gaëtan Dugas, who was erroneously identified as the cause of the AIDS outbreak. Your sources are ...


2

From a rigorous scientific viewpoint, it at first makes indeed not much sense to list STIs and HIV separately. HIV is a virus that once it is in your body and you have antibodies developed will have caused an STI, which once it progresses to the symptoms of AIDS, becomes an STD that nobody wants. So it is mainly a historically formed cultural response to ...


2

In China, to report an infection outbreak, you don't call World Health Organization (WHO), but the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. They should have the most up to date information about recent infections. For example, in the US, CDC has National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) and if you call them, they may redirect you to a state health ...


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