24

You as an untrained bystander can do little to nothing. Professionally trained paramedics could (as an example) pull the leg and thus remove tension between two bone membranes (periostei) and in a best case scenario alleviate all pain. The bone itself has hardly any nerve endings, it is only the periosteum that causes pain. This only works in a few cases. ...


10

According to the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, a sudden hearing loss (Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss) is considered as a medical emergency as the treatment is more efficient if given as soon as possible: [...] delaying SSHL diagnosis and treatment may decrease the effectiveness of treatment. This appears in the section 1 of the ...


8

If you are in a no-other-liquid situation then not, it's not safe to drink. The problem is that your urine is a way to remove superfluous minerals and other stuff from the body. The body's job, especially in a state of dehydration, is to remove this waste with the least amount of water sufficient to flush it away. If you then drink this urine, you are ...


7

The MOLST (Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment) form is an update to the non-hospital DNR, which as you saw in a previous answer has very stringent (and frankly unrealistic) requirements. The MOLST is printed on bright pink paper, and EMS providers are trained to look for it upon entering a house. In addition, patients are able to wear a metal ...


7

During approximately 50% of cardiac arrests, the patient continues to breathe for a time. However, this breathing is known as agonal respiration and is essentially gasping for air. This gasping is actually beneficial if CPR can be started while it is still occurring, it is believed that this may increase the chances of survival during a cardiac arrest ...


7

Your technical understanding is correct and television is fiction. In fact, watching shows involving CPR and defibrillation is a source of both amusement and frustration for most medical professionals because it is almost always portrayed wildly inaccurately. Defibrillation is effective against only ventricular fibrillation (VF or V-Fib, which is when the ...


6

The only studies I'm aware of come from the Emergency Medicine Journal, but other should exist for sure. Some say it has drawbacks (discomfort, pressure sore) and that alternatives such as the vacuum mattress should be preferred: Comparison of a long spinal board and vacuum mattress for spinal immobilisation The use of the spinal board after the pre-...


6

The timing of the first defibrillation attempts depends mostly on when defibrillation is detected. If it is witnessed - that is, the patient is being monitored and the alarm goes off, you're right there at the bedside, and the patient is in V Fib, it's fine to shock first. However, whereas this used to be the norm - shock first - it no longer is, partly ...


6

Cocaine use is known to cause gastric ischemia or even perforation (in a 19 year old female student with epigastric pain PubMed, 2010) and in another 5 relatively young people (PubMed, 1991), or intestinal ischemia (PubMed, 1999). When there are no symptoms that would differ from those in food poisoning or infectious gastroenteritis, cocaine use alone should ...


5

So let's assume you're speaking of a large bone, like the arm (humerus, radius or ulna) or leg (femur, tibia or fibula), but not the skull, spine or pelvis. A good rule of thumb: the larger the bone, the more serious it is. A second rule: if the skin is broken (the bone is sticking out), it is serious. So, if you suspect a hand or foot fracture with no ...


5

Answer for the US and Canada: Call 911 and explain the situation. They will be able to either forward your call or give you a number to call faster than you can find it on your own. Dispatch centers contact each other all the time so they know in advance how to do so. If that doesn't work for some reason, grab google and type in "[Somewhere] Idaho Police ...


5

"Giving" electrical current to the heart does not necessarily translate to mechanical contractions. The excitation-contraction coupling (as the sequence of electrical activation an muscle contraction is officially called), is not always a guarantee. A cardiac arrest in many cases mirrors severe malfunction on the level of the micro-structures of the heart ...


5

While the blood pregnancy test is one option, urine pregnancy tests are still possible in an unconscious patient via a Foley catheter, which is a tube inserted up the urethra into the bladder. These catheters are commonly placed in trauma patients (2). There are several things that can be done during emergency management of a patient that can potentially ...


5

It is impossible to state yes or no for any specific circumstance, so I will answer generally. Radiology Technicians have extensive training that is mostly specific to the testing they perform, and there are likely things they are trained to immediately identify as part of that training. However, they are not trained to thoroughly analyze and interpret ...


4

It all depends on the bone that is (or might be) broken, and on the overall condition of the patient. Call an ambulance for a fractured skull, vertebra or hip. Call an ambulance for open fractures (bone piercing through the skin). Call an ambulance if the patient is/has been unconscious or under shock. Call an ambulance if you are not sure whether you need ...


3

In addition to circumstances where an oxygen source would itself be a hazard for external reasons, and in those with chronic type 2 respiratory failure as pointed out in Graham Chie's answer; there is a move away from providing supplementary O2 in those with myocardial infarction (in line with AVOID, which assessed both pre- and in-hospital supplementation, ...


3

Clearly if there's a risk of fire, then giving oxygen outside the hospital risks fire. And in neonates, high flow oxygen can cause oxygen toxicity. If there is no such risk, then the main objection is that by removing the hypoxic respiratory drive in patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure the patient then stops breathing. The risks of oxygen therapy ...


3

I took a quick look at the National Registry site, and their practice tests still show protocols and usage questions for backboard application, so if it is a new national EMS policy, then it isn't showing on the tests. However, I was able to find a couple of articles on EMSWorld and on JEMS (Journal of Emergency Medical Services) citing current research ...


3

If both legs are OK and there is no way they could have a spinal injury, you may well find it is quicker to get them to hospital in your car. Drive very slowly over bumps and around corners, do not accelerate fast and leave plenty of stopping distance for slow braking. This would be my preferred option for a minor injury to an arm, hand, shoulder or foot. ...


3

Your assumption that there is no fluid loss is wrong. In addition to the vasodilation Jan mentioned in his answer, there's significant fluid loss caused by increased permeability of the vasculature. The result is a massive fluid shift from the intravascular to extravascular space. This explains why swelling occurs in mucus membranes: fluid is leaking out of ...


3

Although you might cobble something together that can deliver the appropriate levels of shock, the problem is what @Graham Chiu has been hinting at in his comments. Not all forms of cardiac arrest are shockable. Rhythms that are not amenable to shock include pulseless electrical activity (PEA) and asystole. In these cases, identifying primary ...


2

No, I don't think keeping a patient awake has any treatment value in trauma cases. I'm skeptical there even are situations where you could override the effects of traumatic injury by simply talking. However, it has significant value in assessment. Level of consciousness is the first and most significant vital sign, and being able to monitor it in trauma is ...


2

Just because there may exist some patients who are going to lose consciousness (or die) no matter what doesn't mean this technique has no value. Imagine this. It's the middle of the night. You're in awful pain. Something horrible and unexpected has happened - a car accident, a crime, a house explosion - and you've seen awful things or you're worried about ...


2

The part of the question about passive euthanasia is an ethical question, which in my opinion does not fit for Health.SE. From INJURY SEVERITY SCORING: a Hepatic avulsion, which is given with vein has ruptured from vena cava, has an ABBREVIATED INJURY SCALE of 6 which would count as unsurvivable. Problems with the surgical treatment are in ...


2

If you are untrained on this subject matter, the best practise is to do nothing about the fracture.* Even most certified first aiders are not trained to handle broken bones. *By nothing I don't literally mean nothing. I would assume that you have already called for ambulance. If he is in a dangerous location you can try to move him, but you will have move ...


2

Effect of meal temperature on gastric emptying of liquids in man (Gut, 1988): The initial rate of gastric emptying of the cold drink was significantly slower than the control drinkā€¦ The slower the gastric emptying of a drink, the slower delivery of glucose to the small intestine, where it is absorbed. So, glucose from a cold drink will be absorbed ...


2

The UK national standard sets out that all ambulance trusts must respond to: Category 1 calls (life-threatening injuries and illnesses) in 7 minutes on average. Category 2 calls (other emergency) in 18 minutes on average. Category 3 calls (urgent) in at least 9 out of 10 times before 120 minutes. Category 4 calls (less urgent) at least 9 out of 10 times ...


1

I am a certified CPR trainer. The purpose of CPR is to keep the circulation running such that the vital organs receive enough oxygen to survive the period until the medical professionals take over. We literally buy time for the victim. If there is a serious injury such that a significant part of the available blood is pushed out of the body, we have to ...


1

I think there is a misunderstanding of the circumstances to which "break the glass" applies, or perhaps the rules by which physicians nurses and other patient care professionals are granted access to patient records. Regarding accessing the chart in general, annual training is given to physicians and hospital staff on the laws and regulations (for example ...


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