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First of all, if you found papers that suggest certain unexplored side effects, it means the research is underway and it can very well be that in the next years we get new information about how drugs work. Now to the actual question. From the pharmacokinetic point of view, PPIs only affect proton pumps of the stomach. The solution behind this is very simple: ...


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"Proton pump" is a broad category of proteins rather than a specific pump. The drugs called "proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)" to reduce stomach acid target a specific proton pump, the hydrogen/potassium ATPase. Of course, it is possible for drugs to have off-target effects at other proteins, especially similar ones. It is also possible for ...


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Because it is not usually thermodynamically possible to do so. For example Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral for the oxygen carrying molecule haemoglobin. This iron is only useful in Fe+ and Fe2+ forms and it switches between these in order to adsorb and release oxygen. If the iron molecule becomes further oxidised to the Fe3+ form it can no longer be turned ...


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