7

While the measured quantities are the same across border, both names and units can vary. The main difference is often the unit used for the concentration of each analyte : either mass per volume or mole per volume (eg: glucose 1g/L = 5.5 mmol/L), sometime variation on the unit prefix (eg: haemoglobin 120 g/L = 12 g/dL). It is of course possible to convert a ...


4

People are more complicated than machines. First, imagine a condition like "high blood pressure" or "underactive thyroid." It's not just a case of measuring one number about you and comparing it to one "correct" number. There is a normal range for healthy people. Imagine some measurement that for normal people is between 10 and 12. Imagine that you genuinely ...


3

Medicine, more than almost any other discipline, requires continuing education through the entire career. It changes rapidly, and whatever a doctor was taught 20 years ago in med school, or even 10 years ago at a conference, may not be true today. So if they're not keeping up, they're going to be ignorant on some issues. I've seen that myself more than once ...


3

Do US students take USMLE exams of the same content like IMG (foreign) doctors? Yes, they do. Is it true that American students take USMLE separated in subjects not a as a whole set of 300 questions on all topics? It is false. It's the same. USMLE Step 1 : single-day, composed of seven 40-question sections with a maximum 280 multiple-choice questions ...


3

PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) is compound entity. It means that if you want to diagnose PCOS, the complaints (less frequent cycles, acne etc.) are not sufficient - you have to prove both the anatomical component (usually with ultrasound to describe the cysts) and the functional component (less frequent menstrual periods, androgen excess as measured by ...


1

I do know that something can be injected into a patient's IV to wake them up immediately from general anaesthesia. That's not how it works. Many anaesthetics only work for minutes at best. A normal dosage of propofol would have to be renewed every 5-10 minutes. To "wake" you from general anaesthesia, they just stop administering anaesthetic agents....


1

Generally these decisions are "made" by work groups of specialists in the field. Your question is very general. There are so many measurements that can be done from blood samples that there is no way I can provide you with information on exactly who decides what the reference value is. ("Who decides" makes it sound like it is arbritrary - it is not. ...


1

There's one vaccine composition for the southern hemisphere and one for the northern hemisphere each year. The WHO publishes the composition recommendations. For example, the composition for the 2019/2020 northern hemisphere winter season was: an A/Brisbane/02/2018 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus; an A/Kansas/14/2017 (H3N2)-like virus; a B/Colorado/06/2017-like ...


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