10 votes
Accepted

How is pain measured?

Please note that the pain scale is usually used to evaluate the efficacy of treatment. As long as the pain is responding to treatment, there need not be objectivity per se. Was it a '7' on arrival? ...
anongoodnurse's user avatar
5 votes

How do you tell a brain-dead patient from a living one?

Once the decision to proceed with the brain death determination has been made, three conditions must be present: coma, the absence of brainstem reflexes, and apnea. Coma should be evaluated by ...
Narusan's user avatar
  • 6,772
5 votes

When is an MRI also an MRN?

If you are going to have a Magnetic Resonance Neurography (MRN), also known as MR Imaging of Peripheral Nerves (PNI) (UCSF), a doctor will likely tell you in advance, at least because the ...
Jan's user avatar
  • 15.9k
5 votes
Accepted

What are the online blood testing services that allow to pick and choose exactly what test you want?

Somehow today I had a bit more luck in addressing my own question. It seems that many of the online blood testing services do offer tests on a disaggregated basis. Their more popular products are ...
Sympa's user avatar
  • 759
5 votes

Why are diagnostics based on the microbiome so slow to adopt?

I've been following microbiomes since they first began to be discussed, and remember the first fecal transplant done for treatment of C. diff. Now it's a common enough treatment. But when an average ...
anongoodnurse's user avatar
4 votes

How effective/accurate are pill cameras for diagnosing Crohn's disease?

They're successful about two thirds of the time, which is better than other techniques. In general, success rates of diagnosis using wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) range from ~61%-71%, but hover ...
HDE 226868's user avatar
  • 1,848
4 votes

How is pain measured?

The Numerical Rating Scale (NRS - 11) may be the easiest one to relate to. Between ranges can be looked at pretty objectively, but within ranges is more subjective. Rating: Pain Level 0: No Pain ...
neerajt's user avatar
  • 701
3 votes

Are there any "markers of low immunity" in people without any genetic immune disease?

Low immunity with frequent infections in adults without any genetic immunodeficiency disease can be due to: Genetic predisposition (Cureus) Old age (J Clin Invest) Excessive stress (Psychol Bull) ...
Jan's user avatar
  • 15.9k
3 votes
Accepted

What diseases can be identified by some defined algorithm?

Some diseases have laboratory result-based definitions. For example, diabetes is defined by some organizations as a fasting blood sugar value over a certain level, or other similar laboratory test ...
Henry Wei's user avatar
  • 638
3 votes
Accepted

What is Clinical Decision Support (CDS)?

What is Clinical Decision Support? This ends up getting a little bogged down in compliance mumbo jumbo, but Clinical Decision Support is defined by the US centers for medicare and medicaid services as:...
De Novo's user avatar
  • 3,188
3 votes

When is an MRI also an MRN?

Magnetic Resonance Imaging is an umbrella term for any medical imaging technique that makes use of the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance. There are many variants depending on how the scanner is ...
Chris's user avatar
  • 3,304
2 votes

MRI scans for diagnosing Crohn's disease?

As far as I know MRI scans are mainly used to assess the location and extent of crohn's disease manifestations and crohn's associated complications (strictures, fistulas, wall thinkening). MRI is ...
Piranha's user avatar
  • 21
2 votes

Uremic encephalopathy, diabetes, and halucinations

The treatment for uremic encephalopathy is dialysis of some sort - peritoneal, etc. - or a kidney transplant, of course. But the latter is not the immediate treatment of choice. Looking for why ...
anongoodnurse's user avatar
2 votes

How is the workflow of physical examination's documentation in the USA exactly?

I agree with the other answer and wanted to add a few things. At most larger healthcare systems in the USA, EHRs are used. Paper is still sometimes used in smaller practices, but rarely. In the USA ...
DoctorWhom's user avatar
  • 5,804
2 votes
Accepted

Is the Zimnitsky Urine Test used in the West at all? What tests are used instead?

So far, I could not find evidence that the Zimnitsky test is applied in exactly the same way in western countries. The urine specific gravity is a parameter that is assessed during urine analysis. ...
Arsak's user avatar
  • 323
2 votes
Accepted

What is the umbrella term for examination/diagnostics using tools, equipment and instruments?

The term "instrumental diagnostics" is commonly used in Russian and Eastern European texts and it appears as such in texts translated into English (search results for "instrumental diagnostics"). The ...
Jan's user avatar
  • 15.9k
2 votes
Accepted

What does it mean, that an epidemic curve is truncated at the level of diagnostic efficiency?

The epidemic curve depends on diagnostic methods and definitions. If your case definition requires a positive rt-PCR without typical clinical symptoms, and you don't do enough testing, then it will ...
Graham Chiu's user avatar
  • 13.3k
2 votes

How accurate is dermoscopy to predict if a skin lesion is a basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and if it is, whether it is superficial or aggressive form?

According to this https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0190962213010554, and this, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bjd.14499, sensitivity and specificity for BCC as ...
Gregorio Litenstein's user avatar
2 votes
Accepted

Does this paper report miscalculated metrics?

As the other answer points out, the authors here have clearly calculated the positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) rather than sensitivity/specificity. They report these clearly in ...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
  • 13.9k
2 votes

Does this paper report miscalculated metrics?

It seems that they meant to say PPV(positive predictive value) and NPV instead of sensitivity and specificity. This provided a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.85 and a negative predictive value (...
Mesentery's user avatar
  • 642
1 vote

Can tablets containing iron or high fibre food trigger anxiety and hypermetabolism?

Since (given the comments) it seems the question is about iron in ulcerative colitis (UC)... Iron doesn't cause (ulcerative) colitis per se; it's a recommended supplement in people with UC because ...
Dolphin 613 Motorboat's user avatar
1 vote
Accepted

Are H. Pylori infections the most common cause of both gastric and duodenal ulcers? Is the urea breath test a useful diagnostic for both kinds?

This is an excellent description of exactly how the urea breath test is done and why it is useful in detecting whether there might be H. pylori. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1123218/ ...
Diana Petitti's user avatar
1 vote

Why HIV Dna PCR is done for children born to HIV + mothers and not RNA PCR

HIV DNA PCR is found to be more specific for actual infection than RNA PCR . https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9951977/ I didn't read the whole thing I guess DNA PCR actually detects reverse ...
Drowsy's user avatar
  • 11
1 vote
Accepted

How to evaluate the results of diagnostic studies: how to prove that new method is better than gold standard?

The accuracy of a new diagnostic test can be determined by comparing the test results with the results of a biopsy (taking a piece of tissue), which is done at some point after the test, and which ...
Jan's user avatar
  • 15.9k
1 vote

Beyond correlation, why is Frank's sign significant or not?

The pathophysiology of how DELC (diagonal ear lobe creases) and CAD (coronary artery disease) could be related has not been proven, but most likely has to do with the fact that both the earlobe and ...
themerlinproject's user avatar
1 vote

Is the Zimnitsky Urine Test used in the West at all? What tests are used instead?

For diabetes, it is important to control glucose levels. This can easily be done (to a varying degree of accuracy) by checking the urine for glucose. Urine tests were once the main type of testing ...
Narusan's user avatar
  • 6,772
1 vote
Accepted

What might be the cause of this unexplained, prolonged groin pain symptom

The differential diagnosis of pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen or groin is quite extensive, which is why questions on history-taking and a clinical examination are so important. I see ...
Chris's user avatar
  • 3,304
1 vote
Accepted

How is myocarditis diagnosed?

Diagnosis of myocarditis To diagnose myocarditis, your doctor may conduct a physical examination, and discuss your medical history and any signs or symptoms you may have. If your doctor suspects ...
Prince's user avatar
  • 1,888
1 vote

Why have I been fatigued/exhausted for the past month?

There are over a hundred medical conditions with the symptoms you have described, so be aware for any new symptoms and tell him if they are any. Keep in mind any changes that have occurred before ...
a25bedc5-3d09-41b8-82fb-ea6c353d75ae's user avatar
1 vote
Accepted

Explanation of normal CRP during neutrophilia?

C-reactive protein synthesis is driven primarily by interleukin-6 IL-6 induces CRP production in the liver by activating Janus kinases. Signal transducers and activators of transcription ...
Graham Chiu's user avatar
  • 13.3k

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