10

Please note that the pain scale is usually used to evaluate the efficacy of treatment. As long as the pain is responding to treatment, there need not be objectivity per se. Was it a '7' on arrival? is it a '2' after a couple of doses of an analgesic? (if so, Great! Can we safely get it to a '1' or '0'? Did it spike to a '5' today? Why might that be? Is ...


8

Thus far, more than 20 different tumor markers have been characterized and are in clinical use... There is no “universal” tumor marker that can detect any type of cancer. [L]imitations to the use of tumor markers[:] ...noncancerous conditions can cause the levels of certain tumor markers to increase. ...not everyone with a particular type of cancer will have ...


6

Patients successfully treated for Lyme Disease do not need monitoring of any kind (there is no advantage to this.) There are no recommendations for routine antibody levels post Lyme (in fact, it is discouraged, because no one knows what the levels signify), nor yearly exams or other. It is the responsibility of the patient (and the patient should be so ...


5

Somehow today I had a bit more luck in addressing my own question. It seems that many of the online blood testing services do offer tests on a disaggregated basis. Their more popular products are bundled tests that include some of the typical overall blood tests for an annual physical. But, several of those enterprises also offer unbundled tests of more ...


5

If you are going to have a Magnetic Resonance Neurography (MRN), also known as MR Imaging of Peripheral Nerves (PNI) (UCSF), a doctor will likely tell you in advance, at least because the investigation may not be covered by your insurance (Neurography Institute). The MRI and MRN procedures are similar, only that MRN requires more powerful scanners that are ...


5

Munchausen by proxy has been diagnosed for caregiver/care receiver relationships that were not parent / child. Munchausen by adult proxy is an article reviewing 13 cases found in the medical literature where the care receiver in the relationship was an adult. Not all of the perpetrators were parents. The perpetrator was the victim's mother in 3 cases, ...


5

The Numerical Rating Scale (NRS - 11) may be the easiest one to relate to. Between ranges can be looked at pretty objectively, but within ranges is more subjective. Rating: Pain Level 0: No Pain 1 – 3: Mild Pain (nagging, annoying, interfering little with ADLs) 4 – 6: Moderate Pain (interferes significantly with ADLs) 7 – 10: Severe Pain (disabling; ...


4

Myelocytes are immature granulocytes (a type of white blood cells), that are usually only found in bone marrow. In essence, raised immature granulocytes are a sign of bone marrow activity. The reference range for adults who are not pregnant I found was usually 0, except for this paper: Age-dependent reference ranges for automated assessment of immature ...


4

Is screening a good thing? -Overall yes, but with caveats. First, take an extreme example of an individual undergoing a full body CT scan at least once a year, every year after the age of 50. The upside is potentially detecting some forms of cancer early on (although the FDA says there are no benefits for healthy individuals). The downside is increased ...


4

Overdiagnosis is not the same as misdiagnosis (for example, many people are concerned that ADHD is often misdiagnosed, but call it overdiagnosis.*) Overdiagnosis and overtreatment are intertwined. Diagnostic tests are considered "useful" if treatment decisions are affected by the results. Although it is extremely difficult to assess when overdiagnosis has ...


4

They're successful about two thirds of the time, which is better than other techniques. In general, success rates of diagnosis using wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) range from ~61%-71%, but hover around ~66%. Triester et al. (2006) wrote a meta study comparing detection rates using WCE with rates from other methods, including barium radiography ileoscopy ...


4

Once the decision to proceed with the brain death determination has been made, three conditions must be present: coma, the absence of brainstem reflexes, and apnea. Coma should be evaluated by ensuring a lack of responsiveness to noxious stimuli; no eye or motor reflex should be present in response to stimuli. Additionally, the cause of coma should be ...


3

What is Clinical Decision Support? This ends up getting a little bogged down in compliance mumbo jumbo, but Clinical Decision Support is defined by the US centers for medicare and medicaid services as: Health information technology functionality that builds upon the foundation of an electronic health record to provide persons involved in care processes with ...


3

Magnetic Resonance Imaging is an umbrella term for any medical imaging technique that makes use of the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance. There are many variants depending on how the scanner is configured and analysed, but all are considered MRI. The basis for the different types of MRI scanning Much of the following is adapted from MRI Basics. ...


3

Low immunity with frequent infections in adults without any genetic immunodeficiency disease can be due to: Genetic predisposition (Cureus) Old age (J Clin Invest) Excessive stress (Psychol Bull) Smoking (Oncotarget) Excessive alcohol drinking (Alcohol Research) Chronic conditions, such as malnutrition, low stomach acid, diabetes, kidney or liver disease, ...


2

As far as I know MRI scans are mainly used to assess the location and extent of crohn's disease manifestations and crohn's associated complications (strictures, fistulas, wall thinkening). MRI is usefull to determine the phenotype of someones crohn's (e.g. localized terminal ileitis, perianal disease). An MRI of course is not suitable as sole instrument to ...


2

The treatment for uremic encephalopathy is dialysis of some sort - peritoneal, etc. - or a kidney transplant, of course. But the latter is not the immediate treatment of choice. Looking for why delirium suddenly occurred is important; not all delirium in dialysis patients is due to uremic encephalopathy (e.g. rule out rule out cerebrovascular accident, ...


2

So far, I could not find evidence that the Zimnitsky test is applied in exactly the same way in western countries. The urine specific gravity is a parameter that is assessed during urine analysis. This can be measured from a single urine sample as well as from a 24-hour urine collection. If I understood your sources regarding the Zimnitsky test correctly, ...


2

The term "instrumental diagnostics" is commonly used in Russian and Eastern European texts and it appears as such in texts translated into English (search results for "instrumental diagnostics"). The term instrumental diagnostics is rarely used by English authors and its equivalent is "investigations," which includes laboratory tests, imaging and other ...


2

The epidemic curve depends on diagnostic methods and definitions. If your case definition requires a positive rt-PCR without typical clinical symptoms, and you don't do enough testing, then it will appear that your epidemic curve is flattening whereas you are only diagnosing symptomatic and severe cases. In an extreme example Wuhan had thought they had ...


2

Some diseases have laboratory result-based definitions. For example, diabetes is defined by some organizations as a fasting blood sugar value over a certain level, or other similar laboratory test results. For a project related to encrypting health data you may wish to start with simpler examples like this to understand how you might protect the identities ...


1

The accuracy of a new diagnostic test can be determined by comparing the test results with the results of a biopsy (taking a piece of tissue), which is done at some point after the test, and which should reliably confirm/exclude the pathology in question. For example, they tested the accuracy of "multi-detector CT" in differentiating between gallbladder ...


1

The pathophysiology of how DELC (diagonal ear lobe creases) and CAD (coronary artery disease) could be related has not been proven, but most likely has to do with the fact that both the earlobe and the muscles of the heart are supplied by end arteries with few collateral arteries - so atherosclerosis could theoretically affect the phenotypes of both your ear ...


1

C-reactive protein synthesis is driven primarily by interleukin-6 IL-6 induces CRP production in the liver by activating Janus kinases. Signal transducers and activators of transcription subsequently switch on the CRP gene expression, leading to the production of CRP. but fever is caused by a range of cytokines including IL-6, IL-1, TNF-a. So, at the ...


1

For diabetes, it is important to control glucose levels. This can easily be done (to a varying degree of accuracy) by checking the urine for glucose. Urine tests were once the main type of testing used to measure glucose levels in people who potentially had diabetes. However, they are less common now that blood tests have become more accurate and easier to ...


1

The differential diagnosis of pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen or groin is quite extensive, which is why questions on history-taking and a clinical examination are so important. I see some investigations (MRI) have been completed, which should narrow it down a bit. Anatomy This diagram shows the position in question: the left lower quadrant (...


1

I agree with the other answer and wanted to add a few things. At most larger healthcare systems in the USA, EHRs are used. Paper is still sometimes used in smaller practices, but rarely. In the USA physician documentation is called notes, not letters. Letters generally are directed to a particular individual, for example to a specialist or work note, etc. ...


1

Diagnosis of myocarditis To diagnose myocarditis, your doctor may conduct a physical examination, and discuss your medical history and any signs or symptoms you may have. If your doctor suspects myocarditis, he or she might order one or more tests to confirm the diagnosis and determine the severity of your condition, including: MRI. Cardiac magnetic ...


1

There are over a hundred medical conditions with the symptoms you have described, so be aware for any new symptoms and tell him if they are any. Keep in mind any changes that have occurred before development of your symptoms (e.g: Did you get a new pet?, Did you go travelling?). One thing that you could ask your Doctor is about your vitamin D levels. We ...


1

You can use an ultrasound probe with power doppler to look at blood flow to see if there is increased blood flow present that would be compatible with an inflammatory process. And, neovascularization demonstrated by power Doppler may be present in more painful lesions http://pubs.rsna.org/doi/full/10.1148/radiol.2272012069 but currently it's not possible ...


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