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1

One technique that is also being trialled is testing wastewater/sewerage for RNA from the SARS-CoV2 virus. This won't help you identify who has the virus, but it could inform a city that had previously eliminated the virus that someone has brought the virus back again.


4

According to an NIH press release the trial will use a "saline placebo", in two doses mirroring the two doses of active ingredient. Saline is a fairly typical placebo.


1

As an analogy, people who test positive for HIV don't necessarily have AIDS. However, as a better-understood disease, AIDS has a very specific set of diagnostic criteria, e.g., they must have a CD4+ T cells count less than 200 cells/mm³. COVID-19 research is still ongoing and the diagnostic criteria aren't as clear cut. In the future we may have a clear ...


2

Till now probably there is no evidence of whether we should use aspirin alone in Covid 19 patients to prevent blood clot unless he is suffering from some cardiovascular disorder . This may be probably due to no well conducted RCT taking aspirin into consideration. Although there are suggestion it can be useful. Earlier there were claims that use of NSAIDS ...


0

This is what the AAP (pediatrics) also said about viral infection for young people. https://services.aap.org/en/pages/2019-novel-coronavirus-covid-19-infections/clinical-guidance/covid-19-planning-considerations-return-to-in-person-education-in-schools/ In Pre-K, the relative impact of physical distancing among children is likely small based on current ...


0

It wouldn't be consistent. (as some of the commenters pointed out). Here are some numbers: The concentration of virus in sputum can vary by a factor of 10^5. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7224694/ for count of RNA in sputum) Best guess is that 100-1000 RNA copies is a "quanta" in the Wills-Riley Model (http://tinyurl.com/covid-...


2

The main way COVID19 spreads (according to experts) is either droplets (short distance, <6ft. short duration, <5 seconds from emission) OR aerosols (long distance, 20ft+, whole room. long duration, >60minutes) Unfortunately, as of July 2020, we still don't know. WHO has updated their modes of transmission: https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/...


0

A potential "ideal" experiment is a small, non-ventilated room. A known infected person is in that room for an hour or two. That person leaves and 5 minutes later a susceptible person (or persons) enter and stay in the room for several hours. (This is not ethical, since it's not okay to knowingly make someone sick. It'd be nice to say CDC says it's ...


2

The article makes it clear there are a total of 30K participants with 15K receiving placebo: The vaccination marks a much-anticipated milestone: the official launch of the first in a series of large U.S. clinical trials that will each test experimental vaccines in 30,000 participants, half receiving the shot and half receiving a placebo. How Fauci comes up ...


-3

The 2020 study {1} found that dogs can detect COVID-19 with a sensitivity of 82.63% and a specificity of 96.35%: The dogs were able to discriminate between samples of infected (positive) and non-infected (negative) individuals with average diagnostic sensitivity of 82.63% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 82.02–83.24%) and specificity of 96.35% (95% CI: 96.31–...


1

First off, it depends on which test - blood draw for antibodies (past infection), or saliva/nasal swab for current infection. Here is an easy-to-understand answer from Harvard Heath: "If you get the nasal/throat swab or saliva test, you will get a false negative test result: 100% of the time on the day you are exposed to the virus. (There are so few ...


-1

As to your title question, I'm not aware of "data" but intuitively the effectiveness of a mask (as defined by the mask's ability to filter or capture) should be the same regardless of the environment. A mask rated at 95% will filter out 95% regardless of the concentration present outside the mask.


2

The best data source for looking at total deaths in the COVID-19 era is to look at the CDC's excess deaths data. These data compare actual death data (blue) to seasonal trends (yellow), and indicates weeks for which deaths are greater than would be seasonally expected: You'll note some peaks above expected associated with a worse than average influenza year ...


2

You are right, no ethical committee would allow anyone to expose study subjects on purpose to a potentially life-threatening infectious agent. So you will have to use statistics to figure out if the vaccine has reduced the likelihood that someone got infected. The group size depends. If for example, you used healthcare professionals as subjects the ...


2

The transmission of a disease from an animal to humans is called zoonosis. And researchers have found out that COVID 19 was transmitted to humans via bats. These viruses enter into the human system via various ways:- When an infected animal bites the human When a human has cracked skin and comes in contact with potentially infectious fluids of animals such ...


1

Offhand it would appear that surgical masks of the type you have cited would be regulated by the US government if they were to be used in a medical setting. Check out this FDA page, you will see that masks to be used in medical setting must conform to 21 CFR 878.4040. It is entirely possible that there is no physical difference between the medical and non-...


2

Yes, corona virus does stay on the floor, and the reason can be, one's shoes. An interesting study In this study, we tested surface and air samples from an intensive care unit (ICU) and a general COVID-19 ward (GW) at Huoshenshan Hospital in Wuhan, China The rate of positivity was relatively high for floor swab samples (ICU 7/10, 70%; GW 2/13, 15.4%), ...


3

Look at the footer of the charts: "Each day shows new cases reported since the previous day" (emphasis mine). The virus doesn't care what day of the week it is, but the office staff at the hospital do. In many hospitals (and coroner's offices, and similar places), the people responsible for reporting on cases and deaths don't work on the weekends,...


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