63

Your question contains a lot of misconceptions. A cure is definitely possible A cure could be found, proved, and proved safe, more quickly than a vaccine People and firms that could be working on cures are choosing to work on vaccines None of these are correct. Most virus-caused diseases have no cure: colds, Zika, Dengue, and so on. A tiny handful have ...


35

People could develop antibodies from natural exposure to the virus. The vaccine is trying to cause antibodies to exist in more people (and/or more strongly) than would express them naturally, therefore a good comparison group is a sample taken randomly in the same way as those getting the vaccine: a placebo group. At the same time, these trials tend to ...


23

Drugs are typically small molecules that interfere with some chemical process in the disease causing microbe, and therein lies the rub. Bacteria, fungi, protozoa, worms, etc. are sustained by their own complex systems of chemical reactions, largely independent of chemical systems that sustain us. That makes it easier to find a chemical that attacks ...


21

The initial Russian announcement was bluster. From the NYT's vaccine tracker: On Aug. 11, President Vladimir V. Putin announced that a Russian health care regulator had approved the vaccine, renamed Sputnik V, before Phase 3 trials had even begun. Vaccine experts decried the move as risky, and Russia later walked back the announcement, saying that the ...


19

The only approved inhaled vaccine is the flu vaccine delivered intra-nasally. It uses a live attenuated virus. There are a whole list of people who should not receive it because it's a live virus, and it works better for children, but only is 40% effective for adults. The main issue is The intranasal LAIV, recommended for children above the age of 2 ...


14

Disease are officially named by the WHO, while viruses are by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The WHO has stated From a risk communications perspective, using the name SARS can have unintended consequences in terms of creating unnecessary fear for some populations, especially in Asia which was worst affected by the SARS outbreak ...


13

People in the control group will behave differently if they know they're in the control group. For example, it's not unreasonable to expect people will do less social distancing once they're vaccinated. This will increase their chances of being exposed to the virus.


12

Answering my own question since I believe I've found the answer. According to this source, The senior minister at the department, Mikhail Murashko, announced last week that a nationwide mass vaccination program is planned to begin in October. Murashko added that all expenses will be covered by the government. Therefore right now (September) the vaccine ...


11

Good question. A phase I trial normally has small numbers, is purely sized to test safety, and it would have no placebo arm. With side effects and antibodies are end points, and a placebo group, this would more often be called a combined phase I/II trial. The purpose of the placebo should be to compare the proportion of side effects and antibodies in the ...


10

This is something people have been studying since 1847 when Ignaz Semmelweis hypothesized that childbed fever was caused by physicians assisting at deliveries without cleaning their hands (sometimes coming directly from autopsies or cadaver dissections). Since then there have been thousands of experiments performed to find the best methods of hand ...


10

The paper itself describes how this is calculated (see the Methods section), but also see this Q&A at Biology.SE talking more broadly about how efficacy has been defined in these vaccine trials: https://biology.stackexchange.com/q/96941/27148 They define efficacy as the fraction of infected in the vaccine compared to placebo categories, normalized for ...


9

In the US, in order for a mask to be labeled "medical", that mask must be approved by the FDA as a medical device. With so many new people manufacturing masks coupled with the public demand for masks, it is likely not profitable to delay to seek FDA approval. The FDA also is unlikely to approve a new manufacturer's mask without ASTM testing. Thus, ...


9

The full details are quite complicated, but this nomenclature defines SARS-CoV-2 variants by a lineage depending on which variant they are descended from. A dynamic nomenclature proposal for SARS-CoV-2 to assist genomic epidemiology Andrew Rambaut, Edward C. Holmes, Verity Hill, Áine O’Toole, JT McCrone, Chris Ruis, Louis du Plessis, Oliver G. Pybus This ...


8

An article on Medium had a Q&A with various medical and public policy experts about the vaccine and its rollout. One of the questions was exactly what you asked. The answer is basically "probably not but it might help against SARS and the research could lead to multi-coronavirus vaccines later." Here is the main part of the response: “We do ...


7

I don't believe we have the data to say that vaccines will be deployed earlier than an effective treatment. Vaccine technology is old technology and the go to for most infectious diseases as there is a desire to prevent preventable illness. However, HIV was discovered in 1984 but we still don't have a vaccine against it though we have effective treatments. ...


7

Are betadine mouthwashes really effective against COVID-19? In vitro (test tubes/culture plates) studies do show that providone iodine does kill viruses similar to SARS-CoV-2 after sufficient exposure (just as bleach and ethyl/isopropyl alcohol do.) The answer in vivo (in humans or animals) is unknown. (N.B.: That's, unknown, as in, you should probably ...


6

You're asking some completely different questions here from sources talking about completely different aspects of antibody-mediated immunity. The first statement, from WHO, is talking about people who have antibodies now and whether they will have immunity in the future. Antibodies are produced by particular immune system cells. Someone can recover from ...


6

At this point in time no one can say for sure why many people appear to have asymptomatic infection, and figures range from 20-80% though part of the problem appears to be from false positives in antibody tests. Nevertheless there have been large numbers picked up on rt-PCR who carry the virus but at the time do not show symptoms. Some, if not most, go on ...


6

The level at which herd immunity is achieved varies with the communicability of the disease. The standard rule of thumb is that the percentage of the population that has to be immune is pc = (1 - 1 / R0). The value of R0 for SARS-CoV-2 is not known precisely, but is thought to be between 1.4 and 3.9. This means that herd immunity would be achieved at ...


6

Well, there is one meta-analytical estimate of the IFR for Covid-19 out already albeint only as a draft paper: there were 13 estimates of IFR included in the final meta-analysis, from a wide range of countries, published between February and April 2020. The meta-analysis demonstrated a point-estimate of IFR of 0.75% (0.49-1.01%) with significant ...


6

Rabies is almost 100% fatal so there is no chance to develop immunity. So, post-exposure vaccination is used if the person has not been vaccinated prior to exposure. Rabies is a vaccine-preventable, zoonotic, viral disease. Once clinical symptoms appear, rabies is virtually 100% fatal. In up to 99% of cases, domestic dogs are responsible for rabies virus ...


6

Varicella zoster - you can get infected and then develop shingles recurrences which are preventable using vaccination eg Shingrix https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/shingles/public/shingrix/index.html


6

People don't just act in response to official orders. People react to the perception of danger, and by the time various official responses were announced, they were already taking measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19 (some more effective than others). For example, look at the mobility data for New York: By the time the lockdown started on March 22, ...


6

Here is a nice graphic that aggregates data from CDC & WHO that demonstrates the stages of Covid19 progression. Notice that the contagious/infectious period tends to begin 3 days after exposure, reaches a peak about 5 or 6 days after exposure and gradually diminishes over the period of 10/11 after initial exposure. By the 16th day after exposure the ...


6

The formula used for vaccine efficacy is as follows: VE = (ARU - ARV) / ARU (VE: vaccine efficacy, ARU: attack rate in unvaccinated participants, ARV: attack rate in vaccinated participants) This is equivalent to: VE = 1 - RR (RR: Relative risk) The attack rate is simply the number of new cases divided by the total group size. ARV = 39 / 21,314 = 0....


6

Alas (Pangoling/COG-UK) base letterings don't stand for location. And neither do the numbers following them stand for directly identifiable mutations except for the "with E484K" designators. Those directly stand for specific mutations relative to the first-identified/original variant. As Wikipedia explains The name of the mutation, E484K, refers ...


5

To clarify there are different types of ventilation where ventilation means to assist the delivery of oxygen to a patient. Non-invasive Ventilation (NIV) Without significantly increasing pressure in the airways Masks high flow nasal cannula Positive airways pressure CPAP BPAP Negative Pressure Ventilation Iron lungs Invasive Ventilation ...


5

The reason why many people who contract COVID-19 are asymptomatic is simple. It is because your immune system can kill the pathogen before you show symptoms. In other words, your body overwhelms the virus before it takes over larger areas of your body. The answer to your second and third question is yes and no. Most people, that recover quickly without ...


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