48

The MSDS linked to is for a product sold as a solution of 10% SM-102 in 90% chloroform. It's listed as "SM-102" because that's the interesting/useful thing that the company is selling. It's common for chemicals to be sold packaged with solvents to make a solution. Sometimes that solvent is just water, but if the product is not water-soluble in ...


17

From an Australian perspective Policy Restrictions The governemnt, especially at a state level, is willing to halt the entire functions of the area, in the hope that restrictions don't have to be enforced for as long as a result Border controls As a result of our position on a (remote-ish) island, border restriction were applied earlier, and haven't been ...


16

They're an island that tests and quarantines visitors from outside the island, traces contacts when infections occur, and implements mandatory public health measures like social distancing and capacity restrictions that vary in intensity according to the level of infections observed. There are lots of lay press articles about Australia, I'll include just a ...


10

The paper itself describes how this is calculated (see the Methods section), but also see this Q&A at Biology.SE talking more broadly about how efficacy has been defined in these vaccine trials: https://biology.stackexchange.com/q/96941/27148 They define efficacy as the fraction of infected in the vaccine compared to placebo categories, normalized for ...


9

The full details are quite complicated, but this nomenclature defines SARS-CoV-2 variants by a lineage depending on which variant they are descended from. A dynamic nomenclature proposal for SARS-CoV-2 to assist genomic epidemiology Andrew Rambaut, Edward C. Holmes, Verity Hill, Áine O’Toole, JT McCrone, Chris Ruis, Louis du Plessis, Oliver G. Pybus This ...


8

An article on Medium had a Q&A with various medical and public policy experts about the vaccine and its rollout. One of the questions was exactly what you asked. The answer is basically "probably not but it might help against SARS and the research could lead to multi-coronavirus vaccines later." Here is the main part of the response: “We do ...


8

This general-audience article from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia gives a good overview of reasons to believe that long-term side effects are unlikely. To summarize its two main points: Previous vaccine research and development has found that most side effects occur within about two months. The FDA approval process for COVID vaccines required the ...


7

This is probably as good as it gets for now, but experts quoted by AP have dismissed the idea as highly improbable, basically on the argument that the common sequence is too short to be of concern and that other viral fusion proteins e.g. used in the flu vaccine haven't been observed to cause such an effect (on fertility): Experts say there is no evidence ...


7

The short answer is maybe, but rarely, and the whole Covid virus has never been seen to integrate into the cell's DNA intact. Any integration requires "helper" molecules not found in the Covid virus, and only very rarely found in a normal cell. It's been known for many decades that RNA in a cell can be converted into DNA and integrated into the ...


6

There are known instances of outdoor transmission, and even some fairly large spread, but every study I've been able to find that attempted to differentiate between indoor and outdoor transmission found that indoor transmission accounted for the overwhelming majority of analyzed cases. An early preprint in April by Qian et al found that "among our 7,324 ...


6

Here is a nice graphic that aggregates data from CDC & WHO that demonstrates the stages of Covid19 progression. Notice that the contagious/infectious period tends to begin 3 days after exposure, reaches a peak about 5 or 6 days after exposure and gradually diminishes over the period of 10/11 after initial exposure. By the 16th day after exposure the ...


6

We don't know, and may never know or won't know for a long time. The reason we think the recently approved mRNA vaccines are effective is due to randomized controlled trials. You take a population of people who haven't previously gotten COVID-19, give half the vaccine and half the placebo, and determine efficacy based on the ratio of subsequent infections in ...


6

The formula used for vaccine efficacy is as follows: VE = (ARU - ARV) / ARU (VE: vaccine efficacy, ARU: attack rate in unvaccinated participants, ARV: attack rate in vaccinated participants) This is equivalent to: VE = 1 - RR (RR: Relative risk) The attack rate is simply the number of new cases divided by the total group size. ARV = 39 / 21,314 = 0....


6

You say: I can't find any evidence or articles that specifically confirm that our immune system won't start targeting healthy ligands, such as hormones, other proteins, or even pharmaceutical drugs assuming they may have a similar enough structure to the mRNA-manufactured spike protein. "mRNA-manufactured" is a red herring here. If the spike ...


6

They both encode the full spike. The two mRNA front-runners share many commonalities. Both take advantage of modified RNA chemistry to encode the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with stabilizing mutations added to lock the shape-shifting surface protein into a form easily recognizable to the immune system. Both also use lipid nanoparticle (LNP) delivery systems. ...


6

Alas (Pangoling/COG-UK) base letterings don't stand for location. And neither do the numbers following them stand for directly identifiable mutations except for the "with E484K" designators. Those directly stand for specific mutations relative to the first-identified/original variant. As Wikipedia explains The name of the mutation, E484K, refers ...


6

No it's not zero, even in the US. The March 20 Vox report is talking about the clinical trials, which were conducted on tens of thousands of people, who were generally healthy. In the subsequent rollout in the US, some vaccinated people have died as CNN reported in mid-April: About 5,800 people who have been vaccinated against coronavirus have become ...


5

This actually has been the subject of a recent debate/article in Nature. The answer is that the approach varies, depending on the perceived risk for the subjects... One method previously used is to create a 3rd arm for participants on the placebo that receive[d] the actual vaccine later. Once a vaccine is granted emergency approval, there is pressure on ...


5

Basically neither of your hypotheses is correct. A piece of mRNA isn't usually destroyed after one transcription. Nor does it create an "infinite loop" in the cell. Instead there's a balance between transcription and decay. The mechanisms for mRNA decay are fairly complex in themselves. (see link for details) For vaccines, it's obviously beneficial ...


5

Even if you just read a bit further in the article, there is a quote: “The Norwegian Medicines Agency has communicated, prior to the vaccination, that when vaccinating the oldest and sickest, it is expected that deaths will occur in a time-related context with vaccination. This does not mean that there is a causal link between vaccination and death. We have ...


5

Astrazeneca uses a modified chimpanzee adenovirus vector. Sputnik uses a modified hybrid human adenovirus vector. Since many (most?) humans have been previously exposed to human adenoviruses (but not chimp adenoviruses), some will have previously-existing antibodies and cellular immunity that may be enough to block a human-adenovirus-based vaccine from fully ...


5

Australia, like other countries such as New Zealand, Singapore, and more (including China after the initial outbreak, but of course information from China is often unreliable), have applied a "zero Covid" strategy. The goal is to: prevent the virus from entering (this is really the key) whenever it still manages to enter, stop it very aggressively ...


5

Australia's low COVID rates can be explained by three factors: always locking down until zero community cases are reached, having no land borders and enforcing a hardcore quarantine on all arrivals. Lets compare them to the UK to see why one failed to achieve while the other succeeded. Lock down until zero cases Australia's general modus operandi has been to ...


5

Trivial in concept, sure, but not necessarily trivial in practice. It's not about just producing a handful of doses in a proof-of-concept; if you want to produce a different version of a vaccine at scale it means either building a bunch of new equipment or retooling a previous production line to make the whole vaccine. Since only a minority of people are ...


5

As you note in your quote "vaccination may reduce [data shows it does, substantially] an individual's overall risk of becoming infected". If an individual is not infected, they are not infectious and do not spread the virus. New mutations arise in proportion to the number of people infected, so if fewer people become infected (due to the vaccine), ...


5

The way FDA approval works is that a manufacturer submits an application to the FDA for something they want to produce and market; FDA decides whether to approve or deny that application based on its contents. From Pfizer and BioNTech's press release, dated May 7th, 2021: Pfizer Inc. (NYSE: PFE) and BioNTech SE (Nasdaq: BNTX) today announced the initiation ...


4

Marc Bevand presents this graph of IFR versus age for both COVID-19 and flu: The sources of data are documented on this github page. There is a summary of the sources in the README file. Unfortunately, the IFR data in the graph does not come with error bars. However, most of the underlying sources do include error bars. For instance, Table 1 of "...


4

You seem to have misunderstood efficacy. The 95% efficacy figure is a derived from a ratio of the number of cases in the control group (no vaccine) to the number of cases in the vaccine group. So, if both groups have 1000 people, perhaps 100 people in the control group become infected, while only 5 people in the vaccine group become infected. The vaccine ...


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