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The full details are quite complicated, but this nomenclature defines SARS-CoV-2 variants by a lineage depending on which variant they are descended from. A dynamic nomenclature proposal for SARS-CoV-2 to assist genomic epidemiology Andrew Rambaut, Edward C. Holmes, Verity Hill, Áine O’Toole, JT McCrone, Chris Ruis, Louis du Plessis, Oliver G. Pybus This ...


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Alas (Pangoling/COG-UK) base letterings don't stand for location. And neither do the numbers following them stand for directly identifiable mutations except for the "with E484K" designators. Those directly stand for specific mutations relative to the first-identified/original variant. As Wikipedia explains The name of the mutation, E484K, refers ...


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The ratio of false positives to true positives (as well as overall "accuracy") is a function of the underlying rate in the population. Let's imagine you have a test that has 95% specificity. Specificity is the number of negatives that you correctly identify as negative. If you test 1000 negative samples with a 95% specificity test, you will find 95%...


3

San Marino is, from an epidemiology perspective, effectively a city in Italy. It's also quite small (just over 30,000 people), and the total number of deaths there from your source is 80. This is a tiny sample compared to the other countries on that list. Italy is also quite high on that list. ~175 deaths vs ~237 deaths per 100,000 is certainly in the same ...


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Based on provisional data, yes, the death rate among vaccine recipients is much lower than that of non-recipients. But this kind of raw comparison leaves out important details, as I'll mention at the end of this post. It's not too hard to run the numbers here. Your quote says that from 2020/12/14 through 2021/03/15, there were 1913 deaths. I went to this ...


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This general-audience article from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia gives a good overview of reasons to believe that long-term side effects are unlikely. To summarize its two main points: Previous vaccine research and development has found that most side effects occur within about two months. The FDA approval process for COVID vaccines required the ...


2

From an article in JAMA When the [Pfizer and Moderna] vaccines were first tested, a relatively weak immune reaction was found within a few weeks after people received the first dose of vaccine, followed by a strong reaction when a second dose was given. Multiple doses are not uncommon in vaccinations. Shingrix, a shingles vaccination is also two dose, as ...


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According to the summary of one study: Of 2,581 COVID-19 patients studied, 95 percent of patients regained their sense of smell within six months, according to the study in the Journal of Internal Medicine. The study appears to be this one (on patients from continental Europe) and it has more details even its abstract: A total of 328 patients (24.1%) did ...


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You can use Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) (camera and laser sheet) to get a 2D image of velocity vector fields which show the velocity of plastic microbeads (whose size is known beforehand) to measure how long they remain suspended in the air. You can set up the experiment to measure the settling times for different sized microparticles. You cannot use (...


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Bryan is correct, especially in his comment in the case of 0% true/prior prevalence 40/1000 = 4% positive. 1-2/40 = 2.5-5%. But even in such a conditioned test scenario, in which the 2nd test is only applied to the positive-reporting sample of the first test, a decent test (e.g. 90% sensitivity, 95% specificity) will actually converge pretty quickly (i.e. &...


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