The paper itself describes how this is calculated (see the Methods section), but also see this Q&A at Biology.SE talking more broadly about how efficacy has been defined in these vaccine trials:
They define efficacy as the fraction of infected in the vaccine compared to placebo categories, normalized for ...
Is there any truth behind chemotherapy actually curing Multiple Sclerosis?
Unfortunately, no. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic illness - meaning that it cannot be completely cured. There are, however, various therapeutic options for patients suffering from MS. Some of them include chemotherapeutics - but not as the first-line treatment.
The important ...
I have found a couple of papers which debunk this myth. The links here go directly to free PDF copies and there are DOI links in the references in case the PDF links die.
The most recent paper I can find at the moment is by Hilton, et al. (2006).
The recent controversy surrounding the safety of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) has ...
This comes from my high-school chemistry book (in German):
Hexanhexol (sorbitol) is common in apples, cherries and other fruits. The sweet taste comes from the OH-Groups within the molecule. […]
Sorbitol is half as sweet as sugar (glucose), but does not cause carries.
Furthermore, foods containing sorbitol feel cool in the mouth, as
The formula used for vaccine efficacy is as follows:
VE = (ARU - ARV) / ARU
(VE: vaccine efficacy, ARU: attack rate in unvaccinated participants, ARV: attack rate in vaccinated participants)
This is equivalent to:
VE = 1 - RR
(RR: Relative risk)
The attack rate is simply the number of new cases divided by the total group size.
ARV = 39 / 21,314 = 0....
It appears that melatonin decreases blood pressure in a way that occurs nocturnally in normal persons. Interestingly, it is being investigated as a possible anti-hypertensive in Type 2 diabetics. It doesn't seem to have any undesirable side effects, making it an ideal anti-hypertensive.
In patients with diabetes the mean BP during sleep was lower on ...
There are the following newer studies which are related to that one from 1990:
1992: Usefulness of predischarge electrophysiologic study in predicting late outcome after surgical ablation of the accessory pathway in the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome,
1992: Diagnosis and localization of accessory pathways.
The WPW syndrome is a curable disease. The ...
Your interpretation is basically correct.
The formal definition is:
Primary Purpose *§ Definition: The main objective of the
intervention(s) being evaluated by the clinical trial. Select one.
Treatment: One or more interventions are being evaluated for treating a disease, syndrome, ...
I don't think they are both specific terms that will apply consistently across all studies, you will have to use the surrounding context.
"Data lock" typically means that the data themselves in some sort of database are no longer being edited and are ready to be analyzed: that is, they have been recorded, checked for accuracy, etc. to create a "final" ...
I agree the presentation is confusing. There are 4 categories, two are the same category except separated by age. The other two categories are not separated by age. There are two gray colors; the darker one is "NHAP patients, not bedridden" (nursing home acquired pneumonia), and is the one you refer to.
You'll note that only 3 categories are ...
I'll point out some possible situations; these are certainly not exhaustive and some can overlap, but will probably give you a better idea. Some of the terminology I'll use might be a bit US-centric, but the general principles also apply elsewhere.
Phase 1 clinical trials
Phase 1 trials are the first of four phases that make up a typical clinical trial ...
You would want to talk to the staff who are recruiting patients; I'm not aware of any such trials that have started anywhere yet. I would expect you would have access to most of those things depending on what your definitions are of private time and physical activity.
As far as asking questions, just be direct and define your terms. "Can I bring my computer ...
This entire study was observational; they refer to the entire group as the "observation cohort" but they selected a subset of cases who received a certain treatment to complete their further analyses. Since they don't talk further about the "observational cohort" you can mostly ignore it for interpreting their results, it is only important in the context of ...
Looking at this from the perspective of an infectious disease epidemiologist, the kind of person who often reads (and occasionally runs) studies of this type, I'm skeptical. A number of reasons why:
The only results are a synopsis. More details and data are apparently available, but there is no manuscript, and their "Transparency Policy" has a lot of ...
One might wonder why they gave an ambiguous and questionably relevant figure like "reduces virus by 92%" rather than saying "people recovered more quickly" or something like that. The answer is that in reference 1, which used real-world measures of cold severity and duration, the drug was a total failure. You can see this by looking on the results tab at the ...
The range of symptoms for people infected with SARS-CoV-2 are extreme. There are reports of asymptomatic children with CT scans showing viral pneumonia.
Among the paediatric patients in our study, just under a third were asymptomatic. Moreover, a fifth had pneumonia only and needed radiographic examination to be identified.
With respect to the question ...
The authors did an experiment with two independent variables: group and region. The groups are "schizophrenia" and "no schizophrenia" (controls). The a priori regions were the frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and hippocampus (they also had exploratory analyses of other regions).
Their study was a PET scan, measuring [11C]UCB-J as a marker for synaptic ...
D1 means on day one of the three weekly cycles. DI is a typo.
A clinical study involves research using human volunteers (also called participants) that is intended to add to medical knowledge. There are two main types of clinical studies: clinical trials (also called interventional studies) and observational studies.
Note that unlike what the quote ...
I'm afraid it would be frowned you all if I answered it by myself and took my response as a solution, but...
As I mentioned in the comments section above, I found a very summarized resource on the FDA's web site.
According to the FDA, Drug Review Steps Simplified is as follows.(This is a regular approve route. Not a shortcut-way.)
In the final stage of FDA's approval process, what is the 'agency'? What is the role of them?
The agency is the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). They are an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services. As the article and quote in your question says,
Although the agency isn't required to follow an advisory committee's recommendation, it ...
The authors are fitting a regression model. It is common in regression with factors as predictors to consider one level of the factor as a "reference" level. Every other variable in the model expresses some difference relative to that reference level.
Ultimately the choice of reference doesn't matter that much for the model, as long as appropriate ...
DI stands for diachronic:
Diachronic: Over a period of time. The opposite of synchronic.
This would indicate that the medication is given in a drip, not as a bolus.
D1 seems to not have any standard meaning, the conclusion this answerer draws is that D1 is a probable transcription substitution for DI.
Favipiravir, the brand name of Avigan and was first developed in Japan. The official English translation of the PMDA's review report on Avigan's indication for influenza is here.
This review report has a very unusual logic to it. In summary;
It has no clinical significance for any flu tested.
However, it may work against the unknown flu, but they don't have ...
"Its correlates" refers to "anything that correlates with depression/TRD".
They don't specify what those correlates are (though you could link the statement to the next one talking about bipolar disorder), but it could indeed include related disorders and conditions (such as anxiety disorders and substance abuse). It could also refer to surrogate measures ...
The accuracy of a new diagnostic test can be determined by comparing the test results with the results of a biopsy (taking a piece of tissue), which is done at some point after the test, and which should reliably confirm/exclude the pathology in question.
For example, they tested the accuracy of "multi-detector CT" in differentiating between gallbladder ...
In Yoga Journal, I've found one description of yoga:
Classical yoga, however, is a holistic practice comprising eight
limbs—the physical postures being just one element of finding peace
The same author is aware that yoga can mean different things to different people:
Yoga in Western society often misrepresents the physical practice,