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Background In the past 10-15 years, thinking on calcium supplementation has shifted significantly. In 2001, a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis made the recommendation that calcium should be supplemented to maintain daily intake 1000 - 1500 mg/day in older adults. The reasoning behind this was that calcium is ...


11

Another answer did a great job laying out some of the difficulties plaguing research on this topic. Observational data in the area are (hopelessly?) confounded. I would like to point out two alternative lines of research that may leave the reader with some hope that we’ll eventually have a good answer to this question. Surrogate markers: A major difficulty ...


10

In premenopausal women, the risk of developing atherosclerosis is half that of men. In 1991, Sullivan proposed the iron hypothesis which attributed this decreased risk to premenopausal women's lower blood iron levels, and suggested that blood donation may reduce the risk of developing atherosclerosis. The validity of the hypothesis is still an open ...


7

Although the term "contractility" can refer to contraction of any muscle, including skeletal muscle (e.g. biceps) and smooth muscle (e.g. muscles in arterial walls), in medicine contractility usually refers to cardiac contractility, which in most fundamental terms is the force with which the heart muscle squeezes. According to the textbook Regulation of ...


7

I think you are looking for the the risk score assessment tool based on the Framingham Heart Study. It predicts a person’s risk of having a heart attack in the next 10 years. It takes into account your age, gender, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and smoking status. So you will need information concerning your lipid profile. ...


7

Is it right and safe to prescribe this combination (NSAID like diclofenac + baby Aspirin) specially with the knowledge that this combination gonna be used for a long time? While NSAID are associated with many side effects (alteration in renal function, hypertension, hepatic function and platelet function), the most deleterious effects of aspirin and ...


6

The "Townsend deprivation score" measures socio-economic status, and has five categories, hence you are being asked for your quintile. The scale is 1-5, and it incorporates the variables car ownership house ownership unemployment overcrowding of the household Since it needs to be standardized you can't just calculate it for yourself. 2001 Townsend scores ...


6

To answer this question you would need to find the source of the information. I found the study mentioned in the article in the Toronto Star (Chen, et al. 2017); and while studying risks of dementia, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis, with emphasis mine, they said: In this population-based cohort study, we assembled two population-based cohorts ...


6

Your thought process is correct; in the absence of all other factors, physics dictates that the reduction of pressure surrounding a flexible fluid-filled vessel would result in expansion. But there is an even stronger force: venous return, which is the flow back to the heart from peripheral circulation. (Resource linked is from the author of the cardiology ...


5

The NHS page you linked to does quite a good job of explaining why the study that puts forward the claim that there isn't a link doesn't actually quite say that with any degree of certainty. They are a bit wishy-washy about it and the British Heart Foundation takes a somewhat tougher stance LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), along with other types of cholesterol are ...


5

The mentioned paper has been published in BMJ Open in 2015: The Association Between Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Mortality in the Elderly. A systematic review. The NHS article mentions the limitations of the review: only participants older than 60 years were included, only LDL (but not HDL) cholesterol was investigated, the effect of statins (...


5

Aneurysm - a pathologic ballooning of a segment of a blood vessel Source: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/arm/types - Public Domain In order for an aneurysm to occur, conditions must be present that cause degradation or abnormal development of the structural components of the blood vessel wall. We can list out common causes into those ...


5

There is a well known disease process of oral bacteria getting into the blood and causing organ damage. I cite from the abstract of Hirschfeld, J., & Kawai, T. (2015). Oral inflammation and bacteremia: implications for chronic and acute systemic diseases involving major organs. Cardiovascular & Haematological Disorders-Drug Targets (Formerly Current ...


4

There are a number of possibilities, from benign to serious. Sweating is under the control of the sympathetic nervous system, as is vasodilation (facial redness). Anhydrosis of only one side of the face would be due dysfunction of the trigeminal nerve (which also carries sensory and motor components) on that side of the face. The trigeminal nerve can lose ...


3

In summary, there is a strong evidence to say that the risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) include: High LDL-cholesterol Insulin resistance High saturated/unsaturated fat intake ratio and high trans fat intake High intake of refined carbohydrates High LDL-cholesterol and CVD The Role of Lipids and Lipoproteins in Atherosclerosis (Comprehensive ...


3

From what I know from as a general practitioner, NO and drugs that release NO do not prevent nor reverse coronary disease. Nitrates, so drugs that release NO, are commonly prescribed to treat coronary disease symptoms though. NO mainly dialates venes, not arteries, so the effect is due to less blood for the heart to pump, rather than more blood flowing ...


3

There are many factors to consider. The pollution level (and risk) depends on at least the following: typical wind direction during rush hour density of trees between you and the road elevation difference between you and the road presence of a noise wall between you and the road level and type of traffic on the road This page aggregated a large number of ...


3

For mild cases, no treatment is needed. For more severe cases, ACE inhibitors and diuretics are used as medical treatments. The surgical options are aortic valve repair (valvuloplasty) or replacement with a mechanical or tissue valve. Replacement carries high risks (1 in 50 patients dies) as it is open heart surgery and also a risk the risk of blood ...


3

This is a very interesting question. Thank you. Just as a small background on pectus excavatum (PE) (also known as "funnel chest"). It is characterised by depression of the sternum that begins over the midportion of the manubrium and progressing inward through the xiphoid process: (from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pectus-excavatum/...


2

A definitive answer is unlikely because drug companies don't normally make it publicly known what drugs they're developing. There are a number of antiarrhythmic drugs already available that could possibly treat palpitations, and there are also ablation procedures. Treatments exist now for arrhythmias.


2

Consumption of 1-2 eggs per day is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, according to the following systematic reviews of studies: Egg consumption in relation to risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis (AJCN, 2013): This meta-analysis suggests that egg consumption is not associated ...


2

The amount of blockage depends on factors that are somewhat random as they depend on many things that can sometimes be more in one artery and less in the other. WebMD - Clogged Arteries Plaque that accumulates on the inner walls of your arteries is made from various substances that circulate in your blood. These include calcium, fat, cholesterol, ...


1

This website lists many substances used as culture media for laboratory testing. Brain heart infusion (BHI) broth is rich in nutrients and is made from bovine or porcine brain and heart tissue. It is used to grow fastidious organisms like streptococcus, pneumococcus and meningococcus and is used in both adult and paediatric blood culture bottles. Castaneda ...


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