17 votes

Are calcium supplements harmful, even if you stay short of the maximum dose?

Background In the past 10-15 years, thinking on calcium supplementation has shifted significantly. In 2001, a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis made the ...
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  • 4,355
11 votes
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Is moderate alcohol consumption beneficial for maximizing life expectancy?

Another answer did a great job laying out some of the difficulties plaguing research on this topic. Observational data in the area are (hopelessly?) confounded. I would like to point out two ...
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  • 4,355
10 votes

Does blood donation reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease?

In premenopausal women, the risk of developing atherosclerosis is half that of men. In 1991, Sullivan proposed the iron hypothesis which attributed this decreased risk to premenopausal women's lower ...
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  • 1,680
7 votes

What is the difference between vasoconstriction and contractility?

Although the term "contractility" can refer to contraction of any muscle, including skeletal muscle (e.g. biceps) and smooth muscle (e.g. muscles in arterial walls), in medicine contractility usually ...
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  • 5,693
7 votes
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Heart Attack Risk Score calculation

I think you are looking for the the risk score assessment tool based on the Framingham Heart Study. It predicts a person’s risk of having a heart attack in the next 10 years. It takes into account ...
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  • 905
7 votes

Baby aspirin interaction with other NSAIDs

Is it right and safe to prescribe this combination (NSAID like diclofenac + baby Aspirin) specially with the knowledge that this combination gonna be used for a long time? While NSAID are ...
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  • 905
7 votes
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How far away from a highway should I live to avoid negative health effects?

To answer this question you would need to find the source of the information. I found the study mentioned in the article in the Toronto Star (Chen, et al. 2017); and while studying risks of dementia, ...
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  • 5,852
6 votes
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What does "Townsend quintile" mean?

The "Townsend deprivation score" measures socio-economic status, and has five categories, hence you are being asked for your quintile. The scale is 1-5, and it incorporates the variables car ...
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  • 6,998
6 votes

Ultrasound sniff test: why does lowering intrathoracic pressure collapse the subclavian vein?

Your thought process is correct; in the absence of all other factors, physics dictates that the reduction of pressure surrounding a flexible fluid-filled vessel would result in expansion. But there ...
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  • 5,693
5 votes

If high cholesterol does not cause as atherosclerosis? Then what does?

The NHS page you linked to does quite a good job of explaining why the study that puts forward the claim that there isn't a link doesn't actually quite say that with any degree of certainty. They are ...
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  • 1,252
5 votes

If high cholesterol does not cause as atherosclerosis? Then what does?

The mentioned paper has been published in BMJ Open in 2015: The Association Between Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Mortality in the Elderly. A systematic review. The NHS article mentions the ...
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  • 15.6k
5 votes
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Does COVID-19 cause myocardial infarctions?

Cardiovascular disease is known to worsen during infections such as influenza through two proposed mechanisms: cytokines from the resulting inflammation cause weaken atherosclerotic plaques and cause ...
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  • 1,054
5 votes
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What causes aortic aneurysm

Aneurysm - a pathologic ballooning of a segment of a blood vessel Source: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/arm/types - Public Domain In order for an aneurysm to occur, conditions ...
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  • 701
5 votes

Can dental problems impact cardiovascular health?

There is a well known disease process of oral bacteria getting into the blood and causing organ damage. I cite from the abstract of Hirschfeld, J., & Kawai, T. (2015). Oral inflammation and ...
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4 votes
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What disorder would cause sweating to appear only on one half of the face?

There are a number of possibilities, from benign to serious. Sweating is under the control of the sympathetic nervous system, as is vasodilation (facial redness). Anhydrosis of only one side of the ...
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4 votes

How far away from a highway should I live to avoid negative health effects?

There are many factors to consider. The pollution level (and risk) depends on at least the following: typical wind direction during rush hour density of trees between you and the road elevation ...
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3 votes
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How well established is the connection between insulin resistance and CVD?

In summary, there is a strong evidence to say that the risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) include: High LDL-cholesterol Insulin resistance High saturated/unsaturated fat intake ratio and ...
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  • 15.6k
3 votes

Is there any evidence that Nitric oxide prevents or reverses cardio-vascular disease?

From what I know from as a general practitioner, NO and drugs that release NO do not prevent nor reverse coronary disease. Nitrates, so drugs that release NO, are commonly prescribed to treat coronary ...
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3 votes

Does vasodilation in one part of the body mean another part of the body must vasoconstrict?

You can think of blood volume and blood vessels as a closed system for your nitrates example. Vasodilation does not change blood volume; it changes the volume the container (the blood vessels) can ...
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3 votes

What are some treatment procedures for aortic insufficiency?

For mild cases, no treatment is needed. For more severe cases, ACE inhibitors and diuretics are used as medical treatments. The surgical options are aortic valve repair (valvuloplasty) or ...
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  • 6,998
3 votes
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Can pectus excavatum increase the risk of cardio vascular disease?

This is a very interesting question. Thank you. Just as a small background on pectus excavatum (PE) (also known as "funnel chest"). It is characterised by depression of the sternum that begins over ...
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2 votes
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Is there a drug being developed for heart palpitations without arrhythmia?

A definitive answer is unlikely because drug companies don't normally make it publicly known what drugs they're developing. There are a number of antiarrhythmic drugs already available that could ...
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  • 9,314
2 votes

Eggs & heart health?

Consumption of 1-2 eggs per day is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, according to the following systematic reviews of studies: Egg consumption in relation to risk of ...
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  • 15.6k
2 votes

Why would one Carotid Artery be blocked but not the other

The amount of blockage depends on factors that are somewhat random as they depend on many things that can sometimes be more in one artery and less in the other. WebMD - Clogged Arteries Plaque ...
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  • 2,952
2 votes

Does COVID-19 cause myocardial infarctions?

A case series in Seattle published in JAMA on March 17, 2020 describes a potential cardiomyopathy associated with coronavirus in critically-ill patients. Current thinking includes a potential direct ...
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  • 608
1 vote

Why is carotid endarterectomy not beneficial for symptomatic 100% internal carotid stenosis?

I think this is probably due to selection bias, but I cannot find a source from someone in the field to reference. Instead, to support this conclusion, note that in the review you reference, the ...
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  • 11.6k
1 vote
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if diameter of alveoli is reduced to half, resistance becomes?

The resistance is defined as pressure difference per flow (basically just an application of Ohm's law). With Hagen-Poiseulle: So if the alveoli diameter is reduced to half (resulting in a halved ...
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  • 6,480
1 vote
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Difference between BHI biphasic and Castaneda culture media in diagnosis of infective endocarditis

This website lists many substances used as culture media for laboratory testing. Brain heart infusion (BHI) broth is rich in nutrients and is made from bovine or porcine brain and heart tissue. It is ...
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