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First, I’ll cover some anatomy and physiology of the heart. Cardiac anatomy The heart is divided into two sides. The right side (on the left of the image) receives blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs. The left side (on the right of the image) receives blood back from the lungs and pumps it to the body. Cardiac physiology Blood entering the ...


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There are several studies that emphasize the importance of providing rapid and deep compressions and that CPR should resume immediately after the shock given by the AED, without the delay entailed in checking for pulse or rhythm conversion. Here is an excerpt from one of the studies: "After a successful shock, the rescuer was expected to assess the ...


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Cardiovascular disease is known to worsen during infections such as influenza through two proposed mechanisms: cytokines from the resulting inflammation cause weaken atherosclerotic plaques and cause plaque rupture/thrombosis stress from illness can precipitate decompensated heart failure in predisposed patients Two studies from Wuhan have looked into this ...


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There's a free selection here. It covers: The normal heart Interventricular septal defect Interatrial septal defect Pulmonary stenosis Patent ductus arteriosus Mitral stenosis Mitral insufficiency Aortic stenosis Aortic insufficiency Hypertension within the systemic circulation Hypertension within the pulmonary circulation Gallop rhythm Sclerosis of the ...


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The primary endpoint is the thing you design your study around. You choose a sample size based on a statistical power analysis, making sure you have enough participants that you will be able to detect a statistically significant effect if there is a large enough actual effect. Your p-value for your primary end point should be a good p-value if you've pre-...


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A case series in Seattle published in JAMA on March 17, 2020 describes a potential cardiomyopathy associated with coronavirus in critically-ill patients. Current thinking includes a potential direct cardiac effect of the COVID-19 viral infection, rather than atherosclerotic or ischemic disease per se. The authors noted: It is unclear whether the high ...


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Rough Calculations Here you can find an example of what you are looking for. Hemorrhagic shock is a condition of reduced tissue perfusion, resulting in inadequate blood oxygen and nutrients levels that are necessary for cellular function. Whenever cellular oxygen demand outweighs supply, both the cell and the organism are in a state of shock. A hemorrhagic ...


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Unlike atrioventricular valves, semilunar valves' leaflets are concave, somewhat like shallow bags, which, during the diastole are filled with blood and therefore are pushed back to touch one another and so close the valve opening. Here's a good gif to visualise. Some reference: 4 Valves of the Heart: What Are They & How They Work


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Yes, Lifestyle modification as part of non-pharmacological treatment of heart diseases are known to have significant effect on patient's health. Nutrition plays a large part in lifestyle modification. Role of food and nutrition is part of most residency training and essential reading. There are specific competencies (entrustable professional activities)...


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In the long term, aortic stenosis (AS), especially when untreated, can cause structural changes to the heart that can contribute to arrhythmia. More specifically, left ventricular (LV) outflow obstruction caused by AS can cause pressure buildup in the LV, which over time can cause LV concentric hypertrophy (I.e., the heart muscle thickens uniformly). Such ...


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High-pressure baroreceptors are in the part of the circulatory system with blood pressures higher than 60 mm Hg - in the aortic arc and in the carotid sinus at the bifurcation of the carotid artery. Their activation by high blood pressure results in a decreased heart rate and vasodilation and hence in a drop of blood pressure. Low-pressure baroreceptors are ...


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The left atrial pressure tracing here is not the best part of this figure. It might have some pedagogical value if it were discussed in the text, but it's not. Measuring left atrial pressure directly requires a puncture or a pathological condition (e.g., a septal defect). This is why you'll typically see pulmonary capillary wedge pressure instead of ...


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I am a certified CPR trainer. The purpose of CPR is to keep the circulation running such that the vital organs receive enough oxygen to survive the period until the medical professionals take over. We literally buy time for the victim. If there is a serious injury such that a significant part of the available blood is pushed out of the body, we have to ...


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It seems to be still under debate. Contradictory evidence has been found. The relative importance of Endothelin Type A and Endothelin Type B receptors during myocardial ischaemia are still debated. The word you are seeking is regenerative. Mammalian hearts are made from non-regenerative tissue. "While several animals can regenerate heart damage (e.g. ...


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In short, there seems to be no evidence that acute caffeine overdose by drinking a great amount of energy drink would result in heart enlargement (hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy). It could cause severe caffeine overdose, though. 8 oz (237 ml) of an energy drink can contain 150 mg of caffeine (Mayo Clinic). 20 such drinks would give you 3,000 mg (3 ...


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