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I would like to add a brief answer in common language. The heart is a pump which pushes blood into the arteries in pulsatile manner (pushes out blood with each heart beat). As the blood is pushed in the arteries, the pressure rises to a peak called systolic pressure, which is usually around 120 mm Hg. As the heart's main chamber (left ventricle) relaxes, the ...


12

The two numbers indicate different amounts of pressure (measured in millimeters of mercury) in the arteries at different times in the cardiac cycle. The cardiac cycle just refers to the different phases during a single beat of the heart. The top number is called the “systolic blood pressure.” That’s because it corresponds to the phase of the cardiac cycle ...


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Is it normal for a person to at times feel their heart beat in their chest without actually placing their hand on their chest, while at other times not be able to...? Yes, this is normal. Normally, people do not feel their heart beating in their chest at rest. It is one of those things similar to breathing - it's happening, but we're not often aware of it ...


8

tl; dr - The answer is yes, clinically you can react to having your blood pressure (BP) taken by having an abnormally high reading. What you are describing is called "white coat syndrome" or "white coat hypertension". However, from what I've found, it's not often accompanied by tachycardia (Increased heart rate). I did find a good discussion on this, and ...


8

There are a couple reasons it's not preferred. The procedure is not extremely invasive or very painful and can usually be tolerated awake. Most procedures that CAN be tolerated awake ARE done awake. General anesthesia has more risks than just anesthetic locally and an anxiolytic to relax the patient. It often requires airway protection (e.g. MAC or ...


8

Ventricular septal defect A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a congenital defect of the central wall (septum) of the heart. This septum divides the right ventricle of the heart from the left ventricle. The right side of the heart receives blood from the head and body (via the vena cava) and pumps it to the lungs to be oxygenated. The left side of the ...


7

Some new pacemakers are MRI compatible ([1]). Of those, some have an exclusion zone where the body may not be scanned. I wouldn't be surprised if, in a few years, all new pacemakers and ICDs will be MRI compatible. Older pacemakers still won't be, however. The following quote from [1], lists problems MRI fields may cause with pacemakers: Heating at the lead ...


7

Basically you have a normal ECG reading according to the machine. Sinus rhythm (as explained in the first section of this book chapter) is normal, meaning that the heart is depolarized by a wave starting in the sinus node. That is the first part of the message. It is worth noting, that if your heart rate had been 1 beat per minute less, it would have ...


7

Your technical understanding is correct and television is fiction. In fact, watching shows involving CPR and defibrillation is a source of both amusement and frustration for most medical professionals because it is almost always portrayed wildly inaccurately. Defibrillation is effective against only ventricular fibrillation (VF or V-Fib, which is when the ...


7

During approximately 50% of cardiac arrests, the patient continues to breathe for a time. However, this breathing is known as agonal respiration and is essentially gasping for air. This gasping is actually beneficial if CPR can be started while it is still occurring, it is believed that this may increase the chances of survival during a cardiac arrest ...


7

I think you are looking for the the risk score assessment tool based on the Framingham Heart Study. It predicts a person’s risk of having a heart attack in the next 10 years. It takes into account your age, gender, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and smoking status. So you will need information concerning your lipid profile. ...


7

Eisenmenger syndrome is a clinical syndrome. A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is an anatomic lesion. They are related in that Eisenmenger syndrome can be caused by a VSD (among other things). VSD A ventricular septal defect is a (typically) congenital opening between the right and left ventricle, caused by a failure of the ventricular septum, or wall ...


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While it used to be done, in reality anymore it isn't done as it is possible to damage the equipment by rubbing, and the possibility exists of an accidental discharge between paddles which can be dangerous for everyone around. In older times, conductive gel was applied directly to the paddles, and doctors/EMT's would rub the paddles together to distribute ...


6

Basically I agree with JohnP. The "otherwise normal ecg" is an unfortunate phrase. Sinus rhythm is the normal rhythm of the heart. So the machine should interpret as: Normal ECG. Rhythm:Sinus Heart Rate : PR interval: etc etc. By saying otherwise normal ECG, of course creates unnecessary suspicion.Modern machines are improved in doing an automatic ...


6

The "Townsend deprivation score" measures socio-economic status, and has five categories, hence you are being asked for your quintile. The scale is 1-5, and it incorporates the variables car ownership house ownership unemployment overcrowding of the household Since it needs to be standardized you can't just calculate it for yourself. 2001 Townsend scores ...


6

The study you link explains that the problem with grapefruit juice is its tendency to cause inhibition of the CYP3A4 liver enzyme, which is needed for the metabolism of many medications - including some statins prescribed to lower cholesterol. The wikipedia article on grapefruit explains this further, in particular: Mechanism of grapefruit–drug ...


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In 2013, a systematic review and meta-analysis (see ref in source) examined the long term outcome of catheter ablation in patient with atrial fibrillation. They first looked at single procedure success rates (=percentage of patients free of atrial arrhythmia or not requiring a second procedure at 12 months) and reported that the pooled overall success rate ...


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The only thing that keeps a patient in cardiac arrest alive is constant, high-quality chest compression. Cardioversion ("shocking") of a patient aims to return the heart to normal (sinus) rhythm in the case that a cardiac arrest is due to a dysrhythmia. If it works, great - return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) will be achieved and there will be signs ...


5

Short answer: Yes. Fused leaflets? The condition you’re referring to is known as Congenital bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). It is the most common congenital heart valve abnormality, present in 1-2% of live births. Normally there are three leaflets (a.k.a. cusps) comprising the aortic valve. BAV refers to the situation when there are only two cusps, a ...


5

The difference between systolic and diastolic pressures is known as the pulse pressure. (If this doesn't make sense, please see another answer of mine where I explained the meanings of the different components of blood pressure.) There is no "normal" or "should" that are well defined here. Despite that, there is quite a bit that can be said. What causes ...


5

The mean pressure has to be lower peripherally for blood to flow in that direction. However, it is well known that there is an amplification of systolic blood pressure in the limbs due to reflection of pressure wave from periphery (see http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/51/1/112.full). Vascular stiffness also affects this phenomenon. See figure 4 of this ...


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No, not in a normal human (non surgical intervention) simply because of the mechanism of how the blood is pushed through the body. It isn't like a faucet, where you have constant pressure and regulate by opening or closing a valve in varying degrees. The heart has 4 chambers that alternately relax and fill, then squeeze and empty. The arterial pulse is ...


5

"Giving" electrical current to the heart does not necessarily translate to mechanical contractions. The excitation-contraction coupling (as the sequence of electrical activation an muscle contraction is officially called), is not always a guarantee. A cardiac arrest in many cases mirrors severe malfunction on the level of the micro-structures of the heart ...


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During my last course called "Physical Examination of the Abdomen" (at medical school), we learned to palpate the abdominal aorta, which can be easily palpated in +/- lean patients. This book (freely available here http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK350/) "Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition"...


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If that is the accurate pressure, you really need to go to the emergency room! 188 is high but not immediately dangerous, but 134 for a diastolic is outrageous. At very least go to an urgent care or a pharmacy and have it double checked. To answer the original question, blood pressure and pulse are not directly related. The body regulates both separately ...


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It simply means visually exposing the tissues the surgeon needs to operate on. For example, if the surgeon needs to cut or suture inside one of the chambers and it's full of blood, they would be unable to see the tissue they're working on; therefore, they expose the surgical field by aspirating (suctioning out) the blood blocking their view. https://medical-...


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It is not a fast heart rate but the underlying mechanisms that can affect health. The mechanisms involved in exercise can be beneficial and those in anxiety harmful. EXERCISE Physiological responses and long-term adaptations to exercise (CDC.gov): ...the cardiovascular response to exercise is directly proportional to the skeletal muscle oxygen demands ...


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It's not, unless you are using the term "base" to refer to the aortic root of the heart rather than the apex. A systolic "crescendo-decrescendo murmur" is the classic description for the murmur resulting from aortic stenosis. The aortic valve is best auscultated at the right upper sternal border. In the below diagram, the actual valve locations inside the ...


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First, I’ll cover some anatomy and physiology of the heart. Cardiac anatomy The heart is divided into two sides. The right side (on the left of the image) receives blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs. The left side (on the right of the image) receives blood back from the lungs and pumps it to the body. Cardiac physiology Blood entering the ...


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