6

I can understand your confusion, since the literature has confounding data. However, I would suggest that you expand your reasoning beyond only thinking about calcium demand and consider hormonal changes as well. Regardless, a newer paper that recently came out from Hwang et al. (2016) has some great information. They cite the papers that have shown ...


6

The best reference I could find on this was Schwegler et al. (2013), which gave detailed descriptions of both the processes of transfer of alcohol to the bloodstream and breast milk and the effects thereafter in the mother and the infant. Here is a somewhat condensed timeline of what happens. Intake. The mother consumes an alcoholic beverage, which travels ...


5

Breast milk is known to provide many benefits to the newborn and developing infant. According to 'Bioactive Proteins in Human Milk: Health, Nutrition, and Implications to Infant Formulas.’: Several proteins in breast milk, including lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, milk fat globule membrane proteins, and osteopontin, have been shown to have bioactivities ...


5

It would appear that breast feeding allows the infant gut flora to rapidly normalize after the course of antibiotics whereas this can be a problem for artificially fed infants who can suffer with post antibiotic diarrhoea. Savino et al., (2011) studied the gut bacteria of exclusively-breastfed infants, with an average age of 4 months, who were admitted to ...


4

Because food antigens both cross the placenta and are excreted in breast milk, there was biological plausibility to the hypothesis that maternal avoidance of certain foods during both pregnancy and breastfeeding could impact the development of allergies in their children. Initially the hypothesis was that avoidance would help prevent the development of ...


4

As a general rule of thumb this concern for safe lactating (breast feeding) is of course entirely legitimate: Nonpharmacological approaches are always first-line treatment, and should also be used to complement any required drug treatment. And the connection of ibuprofen and sleepiness may not be unfounded either: "Unusual tiredness or weakness, sleepiness ...


3

The question implies that breastfeeding is an unpleasant and inconvenient thing that should be put up with as long as possible to give a baby "enough" benefit, at which time the box can be ticked and everyone can stop. However most families that nurse past 6 months find it a convenient and pleasant thing, so there's no particular pressure to stop. The ...


3

PREVENTATIVE AND RISK FACTORS FOR GALLSTONES BREASTFEEDING: Childbearing, breastfeeding, other reproductive factors and the subsequent risk of hospitalization for gallbladder disease (PubMed) (A prospective cohort study on 1.3 million women in England and Scotland from 1996-2001) Hospitalization for gallbladder disease is common in middle-aged women. ...


2

It is true that infants receive antibodies from the mother via the placenta in the final trimester of pregnancy and also in breastmilk. Passive immunity This is passive immunity, because the antibodies (usually IgA type) are passed on pre-formed. They can resist infection but do not form lasting immunity, which requires the body to encounter the infectious ...


2

Yes. This article on the Mayo Clinic site suggests combining three approaches: hormones before the baby's arrival, if there is time pumping both before and after the baby's arrival feeding the baby through a system that provides nursing pressure (such as this SNS, a bottle you wear around your neck with a thin tube you put on your nipple, so that the baby ...


2

The evidence for a specific timeframe beyond six months is inconclusive. Therefore: When to wean is a personal choice that has to look at the health of both: mother and child. "Individual infants must still be managed individually." Reference: Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: what is the evidence to support current recommendations? DOI:10.1093/...


2

Males secrete factors that block the development of female ducts and structures. Once the male embryo produces testosterone, the hormone can influence other sex-specific traits around the body. Men having nipples doesn't really have any evolutionary advantage, but it usually doesn't hurt anything either. Barring specific medical conditions—like a tumor on ...


2

There has been some concern that iron supplementation early in pregnancy might increase the risk for infections, and hypertension. However, the current Cochrane review of iron and folic acid supplementation does not find this We included 61 randomised trials in the review with 44 trials involving 43,274 pregnant women contributing to the analyses. The ...


1

In most of the countries, obstetricians are the physicians specialised in breastfeeding. Sometimes, pediatricians are also involved but they often tend to focus more on the breastfeeded child, leaving obstetricians the lead concerning the mother. Here a note from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: http://www.acog.org/Resources-And-...


1

Evolution tends to select out traits that are harmful (in quite simple terms) AND expressed soon enough to negatively affect reproductive success. Nipples (and breast tissue) on males are extremely unlikely to have a negative effect on reproduction, which means there's no negative selective pressure on them. Since all embryos have the tissue required to ...


1

The WHO recommended duration of breastfeeding is not six months, but a minimum of six months. The paper you link to does not say whether the breastfeeding mothers had low serum iron and ferritin or not. Low serum iron and ferritin will certainly result in low breastmilk iron. To answer your question: no, iron deficiency anemia "per se" is not a serious ...


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