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Question: How reliable is the determination method of reference ranges for blood tests? Short answer: The tests for which you can find different reference ranges may not be unreliable because of different ranges but because they are unreliable as such. For example, all reference ranges for vitamin B12 in the blood are unreliable, because the blood levels of ...


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The usual approach is to use a whole animal such as horses The results of our research indicate that healthy horses immunized with the SARS-CoV F69 strain can be induced to generate effective, specific and neutralizing antibodies and to prevent anaphylaxis Heterogenous antisera used for treatment possibly result in anaphylactoid severe acute ...


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Kinda interesting question IMHO, let me break it down a little. First, let's tackle the ABO system. Here you are transfusing O into O, so that would be perfectly fine. Secondly, the is the Rhesus factor. Rh+ erythrocytes have a special antigen on their surface, and if the recipient has antibodies against that antigen, that would cause problems (for ...


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You can think of blood volume and blood vessels as a closed system for your nitrates example. Vasodilation does not change blood volume; it changes the volume the container (the blood vessels) can hold. The result is that with more "room" for the blood to occupy, your blood pressure falls. That's why hypertensive emergencies (e.g. hypertensive ...


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For calculation of Bp and CO, Bp = CO * TPR CO = SV * HR Where tpr is total peripheral resistance, HR is heart rate(bpm), SV is stroke volume SV = End diastolic vol - end systolic vol Now, there isn't any direct graphs for relation between BP and SV, theoretically we can see BP varies linearly with SV. However more important are changes which are ...


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Antibody production is part of the adaptive immune response but the first line of protection against viruses and bacteria is the innate immune response which is cell based, and involves the release of cytokines, interferons, as well as direct cellular attack of infected cells. Interestingly a recent study showed that some younger patients with milder ...


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"Daily patterns" in biology and medicine are referred to as "circadian" - circa means "around" or "approximately", and "dia" refers to "day" - "approximately daily". Yes, as the Mayo Clinic site states, there is a circadian pattern to blood pressure. The primary pattern is that blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) is higher during the day than at ...


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Your assumption that there is no fluid loss is wrong. In addition to the vasodilation Jan mentioned in his answer, there's significant fluid loss caused by increased permeability of the vasculature. The result is a massive fluid shift from the intravascular to extravascular space. This explains why swelling occurs in mucus membranes: fluid is leaking out of ...


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Here are some statistics: Each year, an estimated 6.8 million people in the U.S. donate blood. 13.6 million whole blood and red blood cells are collected in the U.S. in a year. Giving blood saves 4.5 million lives each year in the U.S. The Jehovah's Witness patients' decision to forego transfusions for major surgical procedures appears to add 0.5% to 1.5% ...


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Rough Calculations Here you can find an example of what you are looking for. Hemorrhagic shock is a condition of reduced tissue perfusion, resulting in inadequate blood oxygen and nutrients levels that are necessary for cellular function. Whenever cellular oxygen demand outweighs supply, both the cell and the organism are in a state of shock. A hemorrhagic ...


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Yes, there is increase in sodium absorption levels after rinsing mouth with salt water. This absorption is through oral mucosal lining. Increase in sodium is very little as compared to the daily requirement of sodium. In the clinical study (link mentioned in question), 5% saline solution (which contains 855 mEq of sodium) was used. Sodium absorbed by ...


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In simpler terminology than used in the paper referred to, the observation has been made before that there is a blood group susceptibility to certain viruses, and that SARS appeared to affect blood group O individuals less than group A. Group O individuals possess antibodies against the antigens displayed by group A individuals on their cells. These ...


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Till now probably there is no evidence of whether we should use aspirin alone in Covid 19 patients to prevent blood clot unless he is suffering from some cardiovascular disorder . This may be probably due to no well conducted RCT taking aspirin into consideration. Although there are suggestion it can be useful. Earlier there were claims that use of NSAIDS ...


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Image source: cancer .gov. Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue found within the spongy or cancellous (denoting bone tissue with a meshlike structure containing many pores, typical of the interior of mature bones) portions of bones. As you can see in the image above the hematopoiesis occur at the ends of long bones where red bone marrow is present. In red bone ...


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It's really simple, your misunderstanding just comes from mixing macro- and microanatomy. Macroscopically, all of bone marrow is located inside the bone, in the medullar cavity. Microscopically, bone marrow tissue consists of different cells, some of which are endothelial cells that comprise sinuses, and alongside them (or outside of them, if you will; in ...


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The Red Cells can be used for other purposes like blood transfusions. It's not necessary for whole blood transfusions as far as we know. Plasma is the part of blood that remains after the red cells, white cells and platelets are removed. Blood type AB people are considered universal plasma donors because they don't carry Anti-A or Anti-B in their plasma. ...


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The immune response to viruses involves multiple branches of the immune system. There are the innate and adaptive branches, and within the adaptive response, there are cell-mediated and antibody-mediated components. Different pathogens activate slightly different versions of the immune response. For example, cell-mediated immunity appears to be particularly ...


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1) Where are you measuring the temperature for the "blood" temperature versus "core" temperature? Blood is used, as you have mentioned, to transmit excess heat to superficial capillary beds, but in cases of hypothermia blood is preferentially directed towards the vital organs at the expense of the periphery. If you are measuring the core temperature (...


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According to the standard blood compatibility chart: (image from Owlcation: The Basics of Blood and Blood Typing - Wikipedia file) AB blood types can only donate to other AB blood types, but AB blood types can receive from other blood types, so what is the point of being an AB donor. Well, the chart says that they are the only blood type that can do a ...


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In anaphylaxic shock, vasodilation can result in severe hypotension. The aim of crystalloid infusion is to help correct hypotension. There are various treatment regimes possible, but most authors suggest (for adults): Epinephrine 0.5 mg i.m. (to reverse vasodilation) Oxygen, at least 70%, by mask, 15 liters/min Intravenous crystalloid infusion 500 -1,000 mL,...


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During dialysis only about 10 percent of the blood is outside your body at any given time, while the rest continues to circulate. If the blood flows at 600mL/min, then it doesn't take very long to clean 5 liters (say 8 min). So why aren't you done that quickly? There are three reasons: Each time cleaned blood is returned, it mixes with the waste-filled ...


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