10

TSH has a quite important circadian rhythm. Most of the original research on it is not freely accessible, as open access wasn't really a thing when these studies were done, in the 80s, but this one is freely available: Physiological variations in thyroid hormones: physiological and pathophysiological considerations. There is a section on circadian and ...


9

Venous punctures are typically done for regular blood work such as getting a CBC (Complete Blood Count) and are often enough for regular access - medications etc. Venous access is also used for things such as PIC lines (IV catheters that run almost all the way to the heart). Arterial punctures are often done for getting a "blood gas". This is used to ...


8

Eating chalk is a type of Pica. It is characterized by an appetite for substances that are largely non-nutritive, such as paper, clay, drywall or paint, metal, chalk, soil, glass, or sand which is more common with women and children. Low blood-hemoglobin levels, a sign of anemia, are common, because the ingestion of chalk inhibits absorption of iron from ...


8

Thus far, more than 20 different tumor markers have been characterized and are in clinical use... There is no “universal” tumor marker that can detect any type of cancer. [L]imitations to the use of tumor markers[:] ...noncancerous conditions can cause the levels of certain tumor markers to increase. ...not everyone with a particular type of cancer will ...


8

When you say In one of my most recent blood panels (for a medical study group) came back with HbA1c levels that indicated I was prediabetic, but again, follow up studies were negative. What was the HbA1C level, and what follow-up study was negative? In the Lippi study, HbA1c values between sedentary individuals and professional cyclists were 5.2 +/- 0.3%...


7

MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is suspected in the face of any acute staph infection that does not respond to normal antibiotics. Even staph that is more resistant to other antibiotics than it is to methicillin is routinely called MRSA. The standard test for MRSA (differentiated from other forms of staph) is as straightforward as it ...


7

While the measured quantities are the same across border, both names and units can vary. The main difference is often the unit used for the concentration of each analyte : either mass per volume or mole per volume (eg: glucose 1g/L = 5.5 mmol/L), sometime variation on the unit prefix (eg: haemoglobin 120 g/L = 12 g/dL). It is of course possible to convert a ...


7

The Hepatitis B core antibody test is positive for IgG but negative for IgM indicating that you had the hepatitis B infection a while ago. The negative hepatitis B surface antigen test means that they are not detecting the hepatitis B in your blood when testing for the virus surface antigen. This means you've successfully cleared the infection to a very low ...


6

Retest I generally retest and don't base decisions on a single reading. Although the impact of the mint would seem minimal, the abnormal result itself deserves repeating. Unfortunately, insulin resistance has become a huge problem and I see it all the time in clinical practice and am no longer surprised when a fit appearing person or an athlete I work with ...


6

CRP C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced by the liver. The level of CRP rises when there is inflammation throughout the body. It is one of a group of proteins called "acute phase reactants" that go up in response to inflammation. So, when there is an inflammation anywhere in your body, the amount of C-reactive protein in your blood will rise. The CRP ...


5

Gauge sizes do affect the red blood cells (RBCs). However, this mostly applies in the high range with 23 gauge needles (and higher) predisposing the sample to hemolysis (the destruction of RBCs) which causes problems for some blood tests (namely the CBC). Large needles come with problems of their own like an increased risk of creating a tear in the blood ...


5

Somehow today I had a bit more luck in addressing my own question. It seems that many of the online blood testing services do offer tests on a disaggregated basis. Their more popular products are bundled tests that include some of the typical overall blood tests for an annual physical. But, several of those enterprises also offer unbundled tests of more ...


5

I would recommend keeping those old results around for at least a few years, since it isn't usually a big problem to do so. Having old records around to compare results to might be beneficial. In many countries, medical professionals or labs might be required by law to keep your records around and hand those results over to you or any doctor you authorize ...


5

There are a variety of blood tests a medical provider could use. Your medical provider isn't going to do every blood test in existence on your blood, so if your only concern is about THC detection, unless the consultation is a drug screening (for example, if it were mandated by a court due to previous drug convictions, or part of an employment screening that ...


5

There's no such thing as a baby needle. That's just a term somebody made up to describe a small needle. The diameter of needles is measured in Birmingham gauge. The smallest needles commonly made are 34 gauge, which has an outside diameter of .1842 mm. Compare that to 18 gauge, the size typically used to draw blood samples. A 34 gauge needle is almost 7 ...


5

This is taken from a paper on Science Direct. The intramuscular route is used where effects are desired over a longer period of time than can be expected after intravenous injection, for drugs that are too irritant to be given subcutaneously, or for oily solutions, which cannot be given intravenously. Drugs in aqueous solution are often absorbed ...


5

TL:DR: The job of the lymphatic system is to remove excess fluid generated during the course of normal blood circulation from extravascular tissue, and to fight infection. Anything that might increase this burden on the lymph nodes remaining post mastectomy (e.g. venipuncture, IVs, finger sticks, etc.) is discouraged. As most breast cancers (75%) occur in ...


4

Myelocytes are immature granulocytes (a type of white blood cells), that are usually only found in bone marrow. In essence, raised immature granulocytes are a sign of bone marrow activity. The reference range for adults who are not pregnant I found was usually 0, except for this paper: Age-dependent reference ranges for automated assessment of immature ...


4

This could be linked to your diet, but Vitamin D is not found in many foods (with the exception of fish and fortified foods). However, there have been some reports that laboratories may be producing an incorrect value. "This means that compared with the actual concentration of 25(OH)D in a sample of blood serum, a falsely low or falsely high value may be ...


4

Two important questions: Has AST/ALT elevation been present only once in blood sample? Is the elevation more than 3x the upper limit? Basis for "normal" values should be understood. "Normal" values indicate confidence interval which includes 95% of healthy individuals. As so, any blood test with slightly elevated value may be normal, since all healthy ...


4

I am going to try and tackle this. If anything isn't covered or is unclear, please leave a comment. 1) Initial Consultation That is, I assume, just the initial doctor's visit - taking your wife's health history, weight, blood pressure, etc. That is, of course, completely reasonable. 2) Initial Consult - Fetal Medicine I am not completely sure what ...


4

Your blood sugar, as well as other blood markers, are in equilibrium most of the time. A meal will create a rise in glucose, but this will only last about 2 hours, so that you will have raised glucose only 6 hours out of 24. So this is one reason why the fasting glucose is the glucose to which your body is exposed most of the time. But more important, ...


4

There are several types of HSV tests, with varying benefits and drawbacks. To address your questions regarding the antibody test: Can it detect an inactive infection: Yes. The antibody test isn't actually looking for the virus, it's looking for signs that your body has responded to an infection and produced antibodies for it. As such, infections in the past ...


4

There seems to be some misunderstanding here, so this is going to be a long answer. Our body is very, very good at regulating several physical and chemical parameters inside itself 1. he most well known is the temperature: it does not matter if the air temperature is -50 Celsius or +50 Celsius, it will do its best to keep you between 36.5 and 37 Celsius, ...


4

In a dexamethasone supression test, it is measured whether given the patient dexamethasone leads to lowered cortisol levels. Lowered cortisol levels are the normal response to dexamethasone; if the level doesn't go down as much as it should, that can point to one of several conditions that cause Cushing's syndrome (see below). There are standard and ...


4

Measurements will always have measurement errors, we distinguish between systematic errors and statistical errors due to noise, or other random effects than on average are zero. Usually the former type of error should not be in play, the tests will have been designed such that on average the tests results are correct. The latter type of error is always in ...


4

Diagnosis of gout is based on clinical examination and arthrocentesis (to detect the presence of monosodium urate crystals in the synovial fluid). The use of serum uric acid (sUA) levels is limited in acute gout flare and can be difficult to interpret. If acute gout attack is suspected in a patient, an elevated sUA (≥6.8 mg/dL) can lend support to the ...


4

First, I will explain what tests DO tell you the bacteria, and how they are used. Secondly, I will explain why clinicians rarely do that for respiratory infections. To test for bacteria, a sample can be taken of the body tissue/fluid that is infected - blood for bacteremia, urine for bladder/kidney infection, pus for abscess, spinal fluid for meningitis, ...


4

Short answer? Most likely none. Better answer? What you are asking is what we health professionals call "Screening tests", which are by definition highly sensitive but relatively non-specific routine tests that are cost-effective to conduct routinely in HEALTHY population at risk for a particular disease. Things like Prostate Antigen or Occult Blood in ...


4

Cells of the blood are produced in the bone marrow by multiple steps of differentiation, yielding intermediate precursor cells like metamyelocytes. Their presence in peripheral blood is abnormal. This is called myelocytosis or myelemia. Myelocytosis is very concerning if there is presence of morphologically abnormal cells (like blast), especially if other ...


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