We changed our privacy policy. Read more.
14

The OP observes: When I was a smoker, my own SpO2 was usually 100%. Although long-term smoking often does lead to changes in the lungs that cause hypoxemia (low peripheral O2 Saturation, a.k.a. SpO2), these effects are not immediate. In fact, in the short term, SpO2 may even be spuriously high, consistent with your observation. We should distinguish ...


12

I would like to add a brief answer in common language. The heart is a pump which pushes blood into the arteries in pulsatile manner (pushes out blood with each heart beat). As the blood is pushed in the arteries, the pressure rises to a peak called systolic pressure, which is usually around 120 mm Hg. As the heart's main chamber (left ventricle) relaxes, the ...


12

The two numbers indicate different amounts of pressure (measured in millimeters of mercury) in the arteries at different times in the cardiac cycle. The cardiac cycle just refers to the different phases during a single beat of the heart. The top number is called the “systolic blood pressure.” That’s because it corresponds to the phase of the cardiac cycle ...


8

Many patients who have been diagnosed with breast cancer have their axillary lymph nodes removed. One of the main roles of the lymphatic system is to assist in draining extra-cellular fluid to the thoracic duct and ultimately back into the blood stream. Therefore, when axillary lymph nodes are removed, there is risk of developing lymphodema (swelling) in ...


6

I'm not familiar with using citrate or EDTA as an anticoagulant in medical care (i.e. as a drug). However, it is often used in blood sampling tubes so that the blood sample does not clot. As to their difference, EDTA works irreversibly while citrate is reversible. EDTA is used more often most notably to get the complete blood count. Citrate is mostly used ...


5

Yes, SpO2 levels can be depressed in smokers, but the body will compensate for some of the effects which can explain why you may have had normal saturation levels. There are also age considerations, as well as how much a person smokes. One of the culprits in cigarette smoke is CO, or Carbon Monoxide. CO shares the same binding sites as O2 in blood ...


5

Generally, for determining normal range of any parameter, a reasonably large sample of apparently healthy population is tested for that parameter. The normal range is then taken to be 2.5th to 97.5th percentile value. Values above and below this range are categorized as abnormal (abnormally low or high). For some parameters, e.g. eyesight, one side of ...


5

Many substances that can be found in blood are distributed into saliva (but in different concentrations) so saliva as a biological material can be used for a wide range of tests. All of these have their advantages and disadvantages, and many are still not routinely used. The important thing to have in mind is that, in blood, substances are bound to plasma ...


2

Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of the variation in the beat-to-beat interval. The heart rate (HR) is the number of heart beats in some unit time (generally expressed as the number of beats per minute). In general, because measures of HR are an average over time, it will smooth out the variability in the heart rate. The amount of HRV cannot be ...


1

I definitely agree with you, to not bother with bioelectrical impedance devices as they really are not worth that much. The dexa scan readouts I have seen in America are pretty straight forward. They tell you bone density, lean body mass and fat mass and a few other things in a very readable format. It will give you the data per section of your body such as ...


1

Predicted Normal Values Many studies have published lung function reference values for a variety of race/ ethnic groups, countries, and age ranges. Populations of interest are sampled and spriometric studies were done and statistical analyis was used to determine "normal" results for each parameter of interest. It was found that general equations ...


1

As an adult, no, there's no safe way to lengthen your bones. The epiphyseal plates at the ends of your bones have ossified, so hormonal treatments have nothing to operate on. There is a technique for lengthening bones in adults, distraction osteogenesis, where the bones are intentionally broken and then stretched during the healing process. I've never ...


1

Using this monitoring device on children in adult mode would not give wrong results. I can see two reasons for using a different mode: Normal values for pulse and BP are different between adult and pediatric patients (see Blood Pressure Tables for Children and Adolescents), so default alarms would be different The device measuring the blood pressure will ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible