Fluoride can be absorbed into the teeth and form fluoroapatite only in children up to 6-8 years of age (WebMD).
Later, fluoride from toothpaste may still be helpful, because it stimulates the incorporation of calcium and phosphorus into the enamel that has been demineralized (PubMed Central, 2006). So, fluoride stimulates remineralization and thus slows ...
Exercise does seem to have beneficial effects in treating and preventing many chronic diseases. As far as mechanism is concerned, we should probably narrow the scope:
What is the mechanism for the beneficial effects of exercise in people who have high blood pressure?
It seems to be multifactorial, and independent of any impact on weight loss. ...
I'm not familiar with using citrate or EDTA as an anticoagulant in medical care (i.e. as a drug). However, it is often used in blood sampling tubes so that the blood sample does not clot.
As to their difference, EDTA works irreversibly while citrate is reversible. EDTA is used more often most notably to get the complete blood count. Citrate is mostly used ...
The main protective effect of fluoride is outside the tooth, not inside.
Small amounts of fluoride in solution around the tooth inhibit
demineralization more effectively than incorporated fluoride and have
a much greater caries-protective potential than a large proportion of
fluorapatite in enamel mineral. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 122:
Examples of books from four basic "pre-clinical" subjects:
Anatomy: Sobotta Atlas of Human Anatomy (entire book, page by page)
Biology: Goodman: Medical Cell Biology (Google preview)
Biochemistry: Lehninger: Principles of Biochemistry (book overview with a sample chapter about proteins)
Physiology: Berne & Levy Physiology (Google preview)
These books ...
Tap‐water iontophoresis (TWI) using direct current (DC) is considered by some to be the most effective therapy in palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, although it is debated that botulinum toxin injections may be better (Wade, et al. 2018).
How does TWI block sweat glands, and what are the side effects?
The mechanism of action is unknown. It is hypothesised that an ...
Question: How reliable is the determination method of reference ranges for blood tests?
Short answer: The tests for which you can find different reference ranges may not be unreliable because of different ranges but because they are unreliable as such. For example, all reference ranges for vitamin B12 in the blood are unreliable, because the blood levels of ...
Medicine is challenging for many reasons. One major reason is that it takes multiple tiers of knowledge as a foundation prior to being able to even start studying the fundamentals.
This is how it works in the USA for most schools:
FIRST: College or University (after high school, before medical school)
Undergraduate level (usually 4 years):
Math: through ...
According to WebMD (evidence from Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database), there seems to be lack of convincing evidence to claim that chlorophyll supplements help to treat pain, cancer, infections or other health conditions.
Linus Pauling Institute provides few details about chlorophyll metabolism. They mention some old studies, according to which ...
After some more research it looks like the answers to these questions are indeed still unknown. A recent 2018 article on Proposed mechanism of action of tap water iontophoresis for treatment of hyperhidrosis summarizes:
Tap water iontophoresis is commonly used to treat hyperhidrosis, yet the mechanism of action for this treatment remains unknown.
The pathogenesis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
Below is a summary of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) from this source:
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, major, life-threatening
complication of diabetes characterised by hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis,
It occurs when absolute or relative insulin deficiency inhibits the
Basically, the signal transduction pathway of PGI2 involves a Gs protein. This Gs protein involves the increase in cAMP (through adenylate cyclase; I am assuming you know the signal transduction pathways). Thus, when you administer Dipyridamole, phosphodiesterase is inhibited (which would've degraded your cAMP), thus there is an augmented effect of the PGI2.
The WHO formulae are tested formulations against micro-organisms. You don't mention whether you have hydrogen peroxide but that is added to kill microbial spores that have contaminated your anti-septic solutions.
The issue then is whether adding something else improves or reduces the efficacy of the formulation. Although some essential oils have been ...
Why do we need ketone bodies?
The main role of ketone bodies is to serve as a fuel (mainly for the brain) when there are not enough dietary carbohydrates available (during a low-carbohydrate diet or fasting) to produce glucose, which is otherwise the main fuel in the human body. Additionally, ketones can be used as a fuel in untreated diabetes mellitus type ...
A chain of events that leads to release of sensitizing substances, according to
Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations (PubMed Central, 2011):
...muscle pain would cause spasm of the same muscle, and in turn would
cause more pain leading to more spasms.
Sustained contractures of taut bands cause local ischemia and hypoxia in the core ...