11 votes
Accepted

Is it beneficial to keep using fluorised toothpaste after prolonged use?

Fluoride can be absorbed into the teeth and form fluoroapatite only in children up to 6-8 years of age (WebMD). Later, fluoride from toothpaste may still be helpful, because it stimulates the ...
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8 votes

How does exercise improve health?

Exercise does seem to have beneficial effects in treating and preventing many chronic diseases. As far as mechanism is concerned, we should probably narrow the scope: Question: What is the ...
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  • 3,153
6 votes

Ritalin/Concerta/Methylphenidate is an amphetamine?

The Adderall vs. Ritalin page on Rx List gives the answer. Both Adderall (amphetamine and dextroamphetamine) and Ritalin (methylphenidate) are central nervous system stimulants used to treat ...
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  • 5,872
6 votes
Accepted

Citrate vs EDTA

I'm not familiar with using citrate or EDTA as an anticoagulant in medical care (i.e. as a drug). However, it is often used in blood sampling tubes so that the blood sample does not clot. As to ...
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5 votes
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Biochemistry of (tap water) iontophoresis?

Tap‐water iontophoresis (TWI) using direct current (DC) is considered by some to be the most effective therapy in palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, although it is debated that botulinum toxin injections may ...
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  • 5,872
5 votes

Is it beneficial to keep using fluorised toothpaste after prolonged use?

The main protective effect of fluoride is outside the tooth, not inside. Small amounts of fluoride in solution around the tooth inhibit demineralization more effectively than incorporated ...
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  • 804
5 votes

How does one determine which textbook to start with when wanting to build knowledge in medical sciences?

Examples of books from four basic "pre-clinical" subjects: Anatomy: Sobotta Atlas of Human Anatomy (entire book, page by page) Biology: Goodman: Medical Cell Biology (Google preview) Biochemistry: ...
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4 votes
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Why are antidepressants used to treat OCD?

There's a lot of overlap between OCD and other anxiety disorders, which are also treated with antidepressants, and possibly depression as well (which itself often overlaps with anxiety). Some papers ...
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4 votes
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Ritalin/Concerta/Methylphenidate is an amphetamine?

I agree that the regulation is worded inappropriately, and that methylphenidate is not an amphetamine. However, I would like to provide a more thorough answer than "rxlist.com says so". We'...
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4 votes
Accepted

How reliable is the determination method of reference ranges for blood tests?

Question: How reliable is the determination method of reference ranges for blood tests? Short answer: The tests for which you can find different reference ranges may not be unreliable because of ...
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3 votes
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How does one determine which textbook to start with when wanting to build knowledge in medical sciences?

Medicine is challenging for many reasons. One major reason is that it takes multiple tiers of knowledge as a foundation prior to being able to even start studying the fundamentals. This is how it ...
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  • 5,694
3 votes

Chlorophyll supplements: metabolism of chlorophyll in the human body and proof for resulting health benefits?

According to WebMD (evidence from Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database), there seems to be lack of convincing evidence to claim that chlorophyll supplements help to treat pain, cancer, infections ...
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3 votes

Biochemistry of (tap water) iontophoresis?

After some more research it looks like the answers to these questions are indeed still unknown. A recent 2018 article on Proposed mechanism of action of tap water iontophoresis for treatment of ...
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3 votes
Accepted

What is the specific mechanism for ketoacidosis in Diabetes Mellitus?

The pathogenesis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) Below is a summary of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) from this source: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, major, life-threatening complication ...
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  • 2,331
2 votes

Adding an essential oil to WHO Handrub Formulation

The WHO formulae are tested formulations against micro-organisms. You don't mention whether you have hydrogen peroxide but that is added to kill microbial spores that have contaminated your anti-...
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2 votes
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Linkage between Fatty Acid Metabolism and Ketone body metabolism

Why do we need ketone bodies? The main role of ketone bodies is to serve as a fuel (mainly for the brain) when there are not enough dietary carbohydrates available (during a low-carbohydrate diet or ...
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2 votes

Why does a rise in cAMP potentiate PGI2?

Basically, the signal transduction pathway of PGI2 involves a Gs protein. This Gs protein involves the increase in cAMP (through adenylate cyclase; I am assuming you know the signal transduction ...
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  • 453
1 vote

Sensitization and Energy Crisis in Myofascial Pain Syndrome

A chain of events that leads to release of sensitizing substances, according to Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations (PubMed Central, 2011): ...muscle pain would cause spasm of ...
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