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Every sample is biased. The question is whether these samples are meaningfully biased in a way that would like affect these results. Yes, those getting a head MRI likely have some symptoms related to their head or brain area, but the vast majority of those will have nothing to do with pineal cysts or tumors; in addition, some of the work in the paper you ...


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While theoretically hemoglobine-free blood may be "clear", it would probably be more of a milky color (have a look here for how a platelet transfusion looks like: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platelet_transfusion) - this does not contain any red cells (which hold the hemoglobine). Another thing you might want to look at are plasma donation bags: https://www....


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The most popular drug that can keep people awake for long time is caffeine. Most caffeine pills contain a 200mg dose, about the same as the average 12-ounce cup of coffee.


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Your question can basically be extended to all studies related to statistics. In simple terms you are generally looking for a relationship (e.g. between an increased number of deaths and air pollution levels). Of course finding such a relationship ALONE doesn't tell you anything about cause and effect. Even if you are only looking at deaths from diseases ...


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