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This is not a medical consultation or advice, only educational information. For any specific questions, talk to your doctor. EpiPen is an injection of Epinephrine (also called Adrenaline) that is indicated for treatment of anaphylaxis (or anaphylactic shock), which is a clinical representation of the most severe systemic allergic reactions. Anaphylactic ...


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Noroviruses (NoVs) and Rotaviruses (RVs) recognize histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) (Tan & Jiang, 2014). HBGA are found on most epithelial cells, which line the gut. It would make sense then, that certain strains of NoV or RV may have a higher affinity for certain HBGAs; or even not be able to bind to a certain HBGA. This is not a novel idea and is ...


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The ratio of false positives to true positives (as well as overall "accuracy") is a function of the underlying rate in the population. Let's imagine you have a test that has 95% specificity. Specificity is the number of negatives that you correctly identify as negative. If you test 1000 negative samples with a 95% specificity test, you will find 95%...


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Bryan is correct, especially in his comment in the case of 0% true/prior prevalence 40/1000 = 4% positive. 1-2/40 = 2.5-5%. But even in such a conditioned test scenario, in which the 2nd test is only applied to the positive-reporting sample of the first test, a decent test (e.g. 90% sensitivity, 95% specificity) will actually converge pretty quickly (i.e. &...


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The National Research Council has explained that: “Precision Medicine refers to the tailoring of medical treatment to the individual characteristics of each patient. It does not literally mean the creation of drugs or medical devices that are unique to a patient, but rather the ability to classify individuals into subpopulations that differ in their ...


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