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The only approved inhaled vaccine is the flu vaccine delivered intra-nasally. It uses a live attenuated virus. There are a whole list of people who should not receive it because it's a live virus, and it works better for children, but only is 40% effective for adults. The main issue is The intranasal LAIV, recommended for children above the age of 2 ...


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You're asking some completely different questions here from sources talking about completely different aspects of antibody-mediated immunity. The first statement, from WHO, is talking about people who have antibodies now and whether they will have immunity in the future. Antibodies are produced by particular immune system cells. Someone can recover from ...


5

Advanced Glycation End-products These are basically proteins and lipids that are glycated in a high glucose environment, e.g. in untreated diabetic patients. Wikipedia has an article about the details. In case you need more details than Wikipedia provides: you can find numerous peer reviewed articles via Pubmed, this one for example was suggested by user ...


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China has been using antibody testing to see if people had been exposed in their convalescent phase. The USA didn't want to do antibody testing and have wanted to recover virus using a PCR test, but PCR won't show historical infection. Open source antibody tests have been described but presumably will need to wait for FDA/CDC approval ( https://www....


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The usual approach is to use a whole animal such as horses The results of our research indicate that healthy horses immunized with the SARS-CoV F69 strain can be induced to generate effective, specific and neutralizing antibodies and to prevent anaphylaxis Heterogenous antisera used for treatment possibly result in anaphylactoid severe acute ...


4

Where do you get the antibodies from? You could theoretically use donor blood from infected patients, but apparently it is still unclear if the transmission of those antibodies is safe. Also, those patients who generate the antibodies for everyone else couldn’t benefit from the treatment. And you‘d always need some who develop their own immune response. This ...


3

The primary immune response (when you first get exposed) is different from the secondary (from the memory cells). In the primary response, different antibodies are used (mostly IgM). The secondary immune response mostly uses IgG antibodies. This secondary response is stronger and antibodies are detected for longer. The term primary and secondary are ...


2

It wouldn't be consistent. (as some of the commenters pointed out). Here are some numbers: The concentration of virus in sputum can vary by a factor of 10^5. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7224694/ for count of RNA in sputum) Best guess is that 100-1000 RNA copies is a "quanta" in the Wills-Riley Model (http://tinyurl.com/covid-...


2

The Red Cells can be used for other purposes like blood transfusions. It's not necessary for whole blood transfusions as far as we know. Plasma is the part of blood that remains after the red cells, white cells and platelets are removed. Blood type AB people are considered universal plasma donors because they don't carry Anti-A or Anti-B in their plasma. ...


2

Topically, seasonal coronaviruses appear to be poorly immunogenic and reinfection occurs. Neutralising antibody levels drop to the point that they no longer provide protection. In a 1971 study of 937 medical students, reinfection with HCoV-229E was detected and infection with other respiratory viruses did not stimulate significant complement factor or ...


2

Yes, there actually is a correct answer to this: not every autoimmune disease is antibody driven. Take coeliac disease: antibodies are just an epiphenomenon of the immune process, which is actually cell-mediated (Medscape). Thinking about the pathophysiology of certain autoimmune diseases should help in understanding this: something goes wrong in the antigen ...


2

This approach is not meant to yield a vaccine that will prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2. It is meant to be an antibody treatment for COVID-19. BACKGROUND Antibodies are infection-fighting proteins made by the immune system that can bind to the surface of viruses and prevent them from infecting cells. When a person is infected with a virus, the person ...


1

The National Research Council has explained that: “Precision Medicine refers to the tailoring of medical treatment to the individual characteristics of each patient. It does not literally mean the creation of drugs or medical devices that are unique to a patient, but rather the ability to classify individuals into subpopulations that differ in their ...


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The rt-PCR tests for Covid-19 are not 100% specific so yes it's possible to get a false positive. From the China PCR test The sensitivity of the RT-PCR diagnostic test was estimated to be 0.777 (95% CI: 0.715, 0.849), while the specificity was 0.988 (95% CI: 0.933, 1.000). The confidence intervals include sampling error in addition to the error due to ...


1

The short answer is: No. Your question is a good question, but I think, in this case, that you should focus on the nature of testing in general, rather than on the specifics of this test. Sensitivity and specificity of a test are an empiric result, with the test being held to some gold standard. Whether or not the false positives are false because of ...


1

How do they detect whether someone has coronavirus antibodies? You test the blood against antigens carried by the SARS-CoV-2. Antibodies in the blood will bind to these antigens. The information for the Cellex test says: When a correct volume of test specimen is dispensed into the sample well of the test cassette, the specimen migrates by capillary ...


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This calculator suggests that the antibody tests aren't too bad in that they're suggesting that the official figures are way too low. https://gabgoh.github.io/COVID/index.html The first death in California was on the 6th Feb 2020 which means the disease was likely introduced in mid-January 2020. Assume a case fatality ratio of 0.014 (In NZ We have had ...


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The only way to know the the level of conversion is through bloodwork to measure it and even that can be problematic. From the CD site: Laboratory evidence of immunity or laboratory confirmation of disease Commercial assays can be used to assess disease-induced immunity, but they lack sensitivity to always detect vaccine-induced immunity (i.e., ...


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The current data suggests that SARS-CoV-2 can enter cells by at least 4 methods: ACE2 receptor - Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 which is involved in protecting the lung (and other organs) from damage CD147 - is a transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily, which is involved in tumor development, plasmodium invasion and virus ...


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You can see all the tests being produced here http://www.centerforhealthsecurity.org/resources/COVID-19/Serology-based-tests-for-COVID-19.html Many of the tests share similar sensitivities and specificities. The Cellex test looks at both IgG and IgM antibodies. RDT, lateral flow assay, which detects IgM and IgG to the nucelocapside protein of SARS-CoV-2....


1

I would think that this is a reasonable possibility. We assume that they are largely immune but there is a possibility that this is not the case in 100% of recovered patients. But some Wuhan residents who had tested positive earlier and then recovered from the disease are testing positive for the virus a second time. Based on data from several quarantine ...


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