5 votes

How does apnea trigger the urge to breathe?

Medulla is the part of brain which controls respiration. There is a special chemosensitive area in ventrolateral medulla which has chemoreceptors to detect increased CO2 or Hydrogen ions in brain ...
Sana Fatima's user avatar
3 votes

How does apnea trigger the urge to breathe?

The term for "high CO2" is "partial CO2 pressure (PaCO2)". During hypoxemia -a condition that commonly occurs during apneas- arterial PaCO2 is increased, and arterial PaO2 ...
M.G.Poirot's user avatar
3 votes

Does caffeine have any distinct biological effects to adrenaline?

According to a case report about a 24-year old woman (PubMed Central), in agoraphobia, during a panic attack, the sympathetic nervous system is activated, which results in adrenaline release, which ...
Jan's user avatar
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2 votes

Why not use epinephrine in heart failure?

Aadrenaline will generally quickly worsen heart failure because it massively increases peripheral vascular resistance and thus after-load on the heart. It significantly increases myocardial oxygen ...
Pantomath's user avatar

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