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It very much depends on what you mean by evidence, but if you're talking about major studies that produced meaningful results that actually captured people's attention, it was a series of case-control studies in 1950's, followed by a fair amount of more intensive research in the late 1950's and early 1960's. It's a somewhat technical paper, but this paper ...


6

"Recreational drugs" have "psychotropic effects," which means they affect the mood and perception of stimuli in the brain. Both alcohol and heroin are psychotropic drugs. Alcohol acts mainly on the GABA and glutamate receptors in the brain resulting in disinhibited behavior. Heroin acts on the opioid receptors in the brain, which results in euphoria. ...


5

Okay, this is the closest you're going to get to a "military grade" nerve agent that elevates your mood: using botox as an antidepressant. Botulinum toxin A (botox) is a nerve agent. In fact, it's the most potent toxin known, and could potentially be used as a bioweapon. Botulinum toxin: Bioweapon & magic drug (Dhaked, et al. 2010) Botulinum ...


5

Addiction has both psychological and physical components. Many sedatives, such as benzodiazepines (e.g. lorazepam or diazepam), do have a potential for both. Physically, it takes more than one administration to create a chemical dependence, so that is not likely to have happened. Physically, Nitrous Oxide is not known to create a chemical dependence - ...


5

Consumption of large quantities of sugar has been shown to cause a state of addictionwiki. Study from 2002 shown that excessive intake of sugar can cause signs of opioid dependence, because this kind of food stimulates our neural systems. Repeated, excessive intake of sugar created a state in which an opioid antagonist caused behavioral and neurochemical ...


4

Addiction occurs due to chronic or frequent use, which means a lot more often than you're taking it. Since you're going weeks between doses, and you're taking very small doses, there's no danger of you developing a dependence because of the gaps between doses. Your body simply isn't getting it often enough to develop a physical dependence. The danger would ...


4

The traditional mixture of paan is a combination of products or substances. Paan is most often prepared by using the betel nut (or Arcea nut), from the plant Areca catechu, chopped up and rolled into a portion using the leaves of the plant Piper betele, a plant from the pepper family. This can be further "enhanced" by adding tobacco, lime or any number of ...


3

If you take coffee daily, you no longer get a boost from it after about a week, but rather, you're just staving off the harsh withdrawal symptoms, not to mention over time it will physically change your brain to have more adenosine receptors i.e., "sleepiness receptors". (Ramkumar V et al, J Clin Invest 82:242-247) in a process known as upregulation "A 1995 ...


3

Early symptoms around 6 to 12 hours, more severe symptoms at around one to three days. All depending on how much the individual was using previously and what you interpret as "serious". According to the NHTSA: Withdrawal can begin within 6-12 hours after the last dose and may last 5-10 days. Early symptoms include watery eyes, runny nose, yawning and ...


3

It appears that there is indeed an association between pharmacokinetics and development of addiction to psychostimulant drugs. First, as a general note, it should be noted that pharmacokinetics govern a drug's plasma level, while pharmacodynamics govern the body's response to the drug (i.e. to the drug's plasma level), and in this case, addiction may be ...


2

Contra to Jan's answer, "so they do not have psychotropic effects"... actually they do. First, acetylcholine is a CNS neurotransmitter as well. Second, nerve agents aren't that selective (like many psychiatric drugs actually): Nerve agents cause excessive stimulation of the cholinergic system, with stimulation of muscarinic receptors at autonomic effector ...


2

Most of the studies study food addiction as a whole, because most of the biochemical mechanisms of food addiction are similar for the consumptions of sugar, refined flour, fats, caffeine and other substances. Also, addiction has been studied in relation of people's habit of eating food that is prepared with a combination of ingredients, as donuts or french ...


2

First of all, porn addiction withdrawal is also equivalent to dopamine withdrawal. The chemicals that your brain creates when you use porn – Dopamine and Delta Fos-B – are the exact same ones it creates when you use cocaine or meth. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that helps control the brain's reward and pleasure centers. Dopamine also helps regulate ...


2

Some signs of addiction are enlarged pupils, increased alertness and energy, loss of interest in food and sleep, increased talkativeness, rapid mood changes, increased heart rate, nasal congestion. You can read about these and other symptoms in the articles Cocaine Addiction Signs and Symptoms and Cocaine Abuse.


2

A paper in Psychopharmacology reviews studies of caffeine withdrawal symptoms and concludes that these symptoms "meet the bar" for being clinically proven withdrawal symptoms: headache, fatigue, decreased energy/activeness, decreased alertness, drowsiness, decreased contentedness, depressed mood, difficulty concentrating, irritability, and foggy/not ...


1

If you want to test for any alcohol that could theoretically make someone feel the same effects as drinking ethanol-containing drinks, this article indicates that you may need to test for alcohols of many chain lengths between 1 (methanol) and 12 (dodecanol). (It doesn't explicitly say whether or not isopropyl or even straight-chain propyl alcohol causes the ...


1

Sugar is a kind of food. So, you might want to try some food-addiction support programs. Overeaters Anonymous is a good option. Sugar addicts are always welcome to join their program. They have: meetings you can visit a podcast books and pamphlets that you can buy and a sub-Reddit where you can post. Thoughts?


1

There are two aspects to feeling "addicted" to sugar Expecting a very sweet taste to the things you eat and drink, and not enjoying unsweetened or less sweetened versions. Maybe you like three sugars in your tea or coffee, or you sprinkle sugar on cereal, fruit, and the like Getting a "rush" when you eat something sweeet, and feeling a drop later, which you ...


1

Here are some ways to tame those sugar cravings. Give in a little. Eat a bit of what you’re craving, maybe a small cookie or a fun-size candy bar, suggests Kerry Neville, MS, RD, a registered dietitian and ADA spokeswoman. Enjoying a little of what you love can help you steer clear of feeling denied. Try to stick to a 150-calorie threshold, Neville says. ...


1

Heroin is a special case of substance addiction, because of the tremendous withdrawal side effects. In general, substance addiction recovery doesn't require a gradual approach. In fact, from what I know about OCD, which has some similarities, I suspect that a gradual approach would be more difficult to succeed with. https://www.addiction.com/addiction-a-...


1

Most (proposed) behavioral addictions aren't that well studied (or accepted in the DSM). Gambling is the exception, so you may want to look at how that is treated. Also, there are no accepted standards for what is porn addiction vs. normal use. And since you ask about depression in a different question: increase in porn use can be a symptom of depression or ...


1

Detoxification (the process by which the body rids itself of a drug) Behavioral counseling Medication (for opioid, tobacco, or alcohol addiction) Evaluation and treatment for co-occurring mental health issues such as depression and anxiety Long-term follow-up to prevent relapse A range of care with a tailored treatment program and follow-up options can be ...


1

Most of the studies study food addiction as a whole, because most of the biochemical mechanisms of food addiction are similar for the consumptions of sugar, refined flour, fats, caffeine and other substances. Also, addiction has been studied in relation of people's habit of eating food that is prepared with a combination of ingredients, as donuts or french ...


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