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tl;dr Current research seems to indicate that the brain is responding to anticipation or visual stimulus of needles being inserted, not that any of the theories supporting acupuncture are correct. Steven Novella reviewed the following article: Chae Y, Lee IS, Jung WM, Park K, Park HJ, Wallraven C. Psychophysical and neurophysiological responses to ...


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Acupuncture is often used to treat pain conditions such as headache, lower back and osteoarthritis. It is based on scientific evidence that treatment can stimulate nerves under the skin and in muscle tissue and as result body is producing pain-relieving substances (such as endorphins)NHS. NICE recommends acupuncture only as a treatment option for chronic ...


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Increased vascular permeability means fluid leaks more readily from blood vessels. That leakage builds up in the surrounding tissue, which causes edema. The edema squeezes veins, thereby compressing them, which means they can't do their job of draining the tissue efficiently, and that can lead to the vicious circle he mentions. Vasodilation means the ...


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