12

I don't see a lot of difference between drinking few sips and 1 cup (8 oz, 237 mL) of water at once. If you drink a large amount of water at once, for example, 500 mL (2 cups, 16 oz), all this water will be quickly absorbed and will expand the blood volume. Volume receptors in the heart will detect an increase of blood volume and will trigger excretion of ...


12

The estimated daily requirement needed to maintain body stores of B12 varies, an estimate being from 2µg to 5µg, more if stores have been depleted in any way. It is estimated that the average person stores about 1 mg (1000 µg) of B12 in their liver, and other smaller amounts elsewhere. The recommended daily allowance assumes a 50% absorption rate of ingested ...


3

Yes, there is increase in sodium absorption levels after rinsing mouth with salt water. This absorption is through oral mucosal lining. Increase in sodium is very little as compared to the daily requirement of sodium. In the clinical study (link mentioned in question), 5% saline solution (which contains 855 mEq of sodium) was used. Sodium absorbed by ...


3

Desloratadin is slightly soluble in water and very soluble in ethanol. While that would often indicate an at least slightly better if time-delayed absorption with food, this is apparently not the case: Following oral administration of desloratadine 5 mg once daily for 10 days to normal healthy volunteers, the mean time to maximum plasma concentrations (Tmax)...


3

Officially, I requested to Bayer who is innovator of Ciprofloxacin and received 1 in-vitro study article. The author of the in-vitro study concluded that there's possibility as strategic option for intestinal sterilization but clinical study with patients must be confirmed. Again, this is a in-vitro study but not human clinical study. In case you're ...


2

Let me address this point mentioned in the question: "My apothecary person told me 500-1000 µg per day are needed to even start absorbing meaningful quantities by ingestion." This addresses a problem with the way we absorb vitamin B12. As explained here, when vitamin B12 is ingested, certain so-called transport proteins are needed to move it to the ...


2

I don't think that it is possible for anyone "at home" to calculate or otherwise accurately predict the absorption percent and therefore systemic effectiveness or side effect of a topically applied drug from its physio-chemical properties, but it is possible to measure these parameters for every single drug during its development. Drug and skin factors (...


2

I would suggest the Noyes-Whitney equation: dW\dt = DA(C_s - C)\L wnere: dW\dt is the rate of dissolution. A is the surface area of the solid. C is the concentration of the solid in the bulk dissolution medium. C_s is the concentration of the solid in the diffusion layer surrounding the solid. D is the diffusion coefficient. L is the diffusion layer ...


1

Chronic small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can be associated with decreased calcium and vitamin D absorption, which can result in increased parathormone secretion, which can result in increased excretion of phosphate through the kidneys and thus in hypophosphatemia. In short-term cases, there would be no hypocalcemia, because calcium would be ...


1

Following oral administration in humans, 75% of resveratrol from suppliments is absorbed, possibly by transepithelial diffusion. However, oral bioavailability is low (<1%) due to rapid and extensive metabolism in the intestine and liver (Almeida, et al., 2009; Cottart et al., 2010) As for the absorption rate when drinking red wine, A total number of ...


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