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21 views

Confirming Individual Vaccination Efficacy

Approved / mass vaccines are not 100% effective all the time. Trials are stochastic in nature and experiments are designed to avoid bias. Assume for this question that the vaccine has passed ...
4
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1answer
88 views

Would it make sense to use aspirin as a prophylactic against covid-related blood clotting?

Autopsies indicate blood clots are lethal in COVID-19. So what Is Known About COVID-19 and Abnormal Blood Clotting? I was trying to think of something that might cut down on deaths from covid-19, ...
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0answers
21 views

Have any novel virus or bacteria ever been created by man in the laboratory that we know of?

This question may be off topic for medicine. Let us not consider COVID19. Are there any known man made viruse or bacteria ever created or modified by man that we know of? Bio weapons labs weaponize ...
1
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0answers
37 views

Are cruise-ships and nursing-homes really hotspots for Covid-19 morbidity? [closed]

The press seems to suggest that cruise-ships and nursing-homes are hotspots for Covid-19 morbidity. Is that really so? And if so, are there common denominators between the two?
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0answers
9 views

What treatments help decrease the percentage of immature type III collagen fibers following a tendon injury?

{1} mentions: A microscopic view of tendinosis reveals an increase of immature type III collagen fibers (mature type I fibers dominate in healthy tendon tissue). What treatments help decrease the ...
2
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1answer
52 views

In a phase 3 vaccine trial how many persons actually receive the trial vaccine?

Perhaps I am making an incorrect assumption, but when it is reported that 30,000 participants are being inoculated, I take that to mean that about 15,000 are getting the vaccine and about 15,000 are ...
3
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1answer
27 views

Are there quantified risk factors for suicide in the U.S.?

The CDC has a page on suicide risk factors/protective factors: https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/suicide/riskprotectivefactors.html Are there any sources that quantifies how much each of these ...
5
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1answer
62 views

How accurate are dogs to detect whether a human has COVID-19?

I read on https://www.businessinsider.com/sniffer-dogs-answer-to-the-covid-19-testing-crisis-mirror-2020-4: Medical detection dogs able to sniff 750 people an hour could help identify coronavirus ...
1
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1answer
29 views

What's the proper terminology for the cumulative existence of a disease in a patient?

I'm looking for the medical term that refers to the cumulative time a patient has suffered from a particular disease. For instance, if Jane was diagnosed with diabetes when she was 42, and now she's ...
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0answers
16 views

Minerals and Vitamins: Does RDI balances in 2 days of opposite quantity intake? [closed]

I wonder if RDI (or DV) balances in 2 days of opposite quantity intake? For example lets say Vitamin A: Day 1 intake against RDI = 10% Day 2 intake against RDI = 190% So, will this balance it out for ...
4
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2answers
212 views

Should fever due to infections be treated?

Recently I read in an article The mechanism of fever appears to be a defensive reaction by the body against infectious disease. When bacteria or viruses invade the body and cause tissue injury, one ...
0
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1answer
44 views

What is the best natural source of Vitamin D (excluding sun)?

I wonder if there is a top natural source of Vitamin D excluding sitting under the sun to get a good value in RDI or DV? From what I could google, the percentage of Vitamin D in fatty fish is too ...
0
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1answer
32 views

How can a potential patient grow tissues from their stem cells to have surgically implanted?

It is common knowledge that stem cells, including adult stem cells, can be used to create any other type of cell from the individual it comes from. There are many examples going back decades of stem ...
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0answers
25 views

What's the probability of catching COVID-19 more than once?

In this YouTube video Can you catch coronavirus more than once? l GMA Digital the doctor says that "we don't really know yet". Assuming that the answer could be yes, what's the probability ...
3
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1answer
74 views

The role of growth factors in haemopoiesis

I am currently studying the textbook Hoffbrand's Essential Haematology, eighth edition, by A. Victor Hoffbrand and David P. Steensma. Chapter 1 Haemopoiesis says the following: SCF, TPO and FLT3 ...
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0answers
26 views

Is DiMaio's book “Gunshot Wounds” considered reliable?

I'm doing some research on gunshot wounds for a tabletop role-playing game. I have Vincent DiMaio's book Gunshot Wounds: Practical Aspects of Firearms, Ballistics and Forensic Techniques, third ...
1
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1answer
43 views

All canal types of mandible premolar teeth

Is there any case with a mandible premolar tooth with distal and mesial canals? I have a problem with finding the canals of the mentioned tooth. Can anyone help me?
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0answers
7 views

Has a beating heart ever been made using stem cell technology?

Cardiomyocytes (the heart cells that beat) can be generated in a lab. I have seen scientists make beating human heart muscle but not a fully heart. But what about an organoid? A 3D beating heart.
1
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1answer
102 views

Do doctors recommend that ears should be checked annually?

That's what it says in 3:39 here. Personally, I think it looks kinda fun compared to dentist, but I've never heard of this before. I just know that dentist is every 6 months (or 2x a year or whatever),...
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0answers
23 views

What are Accutane's pharmacological advantages over Epuris, barring costs?

While bioequivalent to Accutane® under high fat fed conditions[,] Epuris provides 83% greater absorption under fasted conditions. Thus Epuris appears to be unquestionably better than Accutane. Does ...
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0answers
8 views

How does protein re-folding occur?

I recently learnt that [Protein refolding] can occur, and I am left wondering how & why this phenomenon occurs?1 The paper above talks about denatured RNAse refolding into its active form. To what ...
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0answers
21 views

Can SARS-CoV-2 possibly overcome herd immunity without mutation in densely populated countries and places?

Can the coronavirus that causes covid-19 possibly overcome herd immunity without mutation using immune individuals as hubs till it reaches vulnerable individuals in very densely populated countries ...
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0answers
17 views

Can Lysine supplement increase immunity against corona viruses?

Can high doses of Lysine as a supplement or from a natural source (e. g. drinking 1-2 letters of yogurt daily) increase immunity against corona viruses? What about a combination of Lysine and an A-Z ...
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0answers
46 views

Could a COVID-19 vaccine provide better or longer immunity than actual infection?

Could a COVID-19 (or other coronavirus) vaccine possibly provide better or longer immunity than an actual infection? If yes, how does it work? If no, should an antibody test precede vaccination? I did ...
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0answers
44 views

Does the stool test for Helicobacter pylori show only acute infections?

There are four options when being tested for Helicobacter pylori - blood test, stool test, breath test and scope test. (Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection) Scope test is definitely the most ...
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0answers
29 views

Who's RNA does the rRT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 target?

The official guide for laboratory testing for coronavirus disease in suspected human cases by the WHO explains the procedure for testing a sample. On page two it states that the test is based on ...
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0answers
15 views

How can injection of an antigen cause type 3-hypersensitivity?

I'm confused about how injected antigen (e. g. Penicillin) be introduced to naive T -cells for the first time and activate them so that they can activate B-cells that in turn secrete specific ...
2
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0answers
31 views

Is the voltage at the heart the same as in limbs for ECGs?

When doing an ECG we measure the electrical voltage between two points on a person's skin (for example for Lead II it's right arm and left leg). I am confused as to how the heart's potential ...
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0answers
14 views

What are the differences and similarities of Sugar Alcohol and the Alcohol in Alcoholic Drinks? [closed]

Question part 1: In particular of Sugar Alcohols, I ask about Sorbitol. I am a 100% strict teetotaler. I do not care if a small dose will not intoxicate me, I am absolutely anti-alcoholic. Recently I ...
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0answers
12 views

Meaning of “patients were self-selected to undergo treatment or remain untreated”

From Treatment of Folate Metabolism Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder: In an open-label therapeutic trial of patients with nonsyndromic infantile ASD, patients were self-selected to undergo a ...
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1answer
52 views

Is there data on the effectiveness of masks for preventing COVID-19 transmission in outdoor settings?

In the COVID-19 pandemic, many jurisdictions are now requiring that masks be worn in public, often including both indoor and outdoor settings. However, many sources (including widely cited preprints ...
3
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2answers
67 views

Do participants of the COVID-19 vaccine trials get exposed to the virus?

It might be obvious to many in the medical field, but it had me wondering when reading about the new trials for the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine that is currently being tested on a group of people. When ...
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0answers
41 views

Does sulfasalazine share other positive or negative effects associated with aspirin due to its salicylate component?

tl;dr: The common drug sulfasalazine "...should not be used in people allergic to aspirin..." because it contains salicylate. Is it known to share other positive or negative effects ...
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1answer
24 views

What does NKX2-5 do?

Where is the gene 'NKX2-5' located and what is its function? How is it relevant to developmental disorders?
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0answers
20 views

What is difference between wet and dry gangrene? [closed]

I have studied in pathology class and my professor talked about these types of injury but i'm not sure how to distinguish between these 2 terms.
4
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1answer
82 views

How did COVID-19 jump the species barrier?

I am not a medical professional. I also do not have enough knowledge on medicine or biology. But I have been wondering a lot about one question in particular for some time: How did COVID-19 jump the ...
1
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0answers
52 views

What happens if I don't ejaculate for a number of weeks / months? [closed]

What would happen if I don't have sex or masturbate my penis? Will my semen ejaculate on its own because of the overload in production? Maybe a wet dream at night? Or will I just not ejaculate at all?...
1
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0answers
34 views

Why is there no generally accepted system of disease classification?

I am reading Burket's Oral Medicine: Diagnosis and Treatment, Chapter 1 - Evaluation of the Dental Patient: Diagnosis and Medical Risk Assessment. Under the section 'Establishing The Diagnosis', the ...
4
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1answer
78 views

What is the difference between medical grade and non-medical grade disposable masks?

One can buy a disposable product which appears identical to medical grade disposable surgical masks, but is not. The package or item description typically includes a clear indication that it is not ...
1
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1answer
111 views

Total number of deaths in the USA before COVID-19 and in 2020?

I would like to compare before and after COVID-19. I want to know if there was a raise, how high, and if there was a shift from other causes to COVID-19. The media is very biased and only reports the ...
1
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1answer
25 views

Can cancer incidence rates, calculated from the general population, be used in primary care?

I calculated incidence rates (IR) for colorectal cancer using an age-period-cohort model. Is it useful for GPs to use such age, gender and anatomical sub-site specific IRs as a baseline risk, during ...
3
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1answer
54 views

Why do semilunar valves not need tendinae but atrioventricular valves do?

Inside the heart the atrioventricular valves (AV) have chordae tendineae to prevent the backflow of blood into the atrium when the ventricle contracts. Since the AV and semilunar valves are ...
1
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0answers
19 views

Does ingesting creatine powder or capsules cause hair loss?

Does ingesting creatine powder or capsules cause hair loss? I have read conflicting claims (e.g., see below) and wonder whether there have been some more serious scientific studies: http://seannal.com/...
3
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1answer
39 views

The relationship between the rate of decrease of antibody production and long term immunity

I am seeing a large number of COVID-19 articles which point to low levels of antibody production 2-3 months after infection. They all point to this being an indicator that infection may not provide ...
1
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2answers
40 views

Why are there no “ethically unobjectionable” alternatives to HEK-293, WI-38, MRC-5, etc?

The cell lines in the title all come from aborted fetuses. This presents an ethical quandary for those opposed to abortion. It seems straightforward to obtain new cell lines from sources other than ...
3
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0answers
20 views

What are non-specific somatic sensory receptors in the nasal mucosa?

I am reading Oral Medicine: Diagnosis and Treatment by Greenberg and Glick, Chapter 2 - Evaluation Of The Dental Patient: Diagnosis and Medical Risk Assessment. Under Cranial Nerve Examination, ...
0
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0answers
24 views

To generate induced-plutipotent stem cells you can use the Yamanaka factors or use pharmaceuticals, which is better and why?

To make this question more open, it doesn't have to be specifically the Yamanaka factors (It could be fewer than the 4, or other factors). E. g. Epigenetic eraser pharmaceuticals https://www.nature....
4
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1answer
170 views

What are the likeliest causes for rising indirect bilirubin levels?

All the following data is from a task a professor gave me and is not connected to a true patient. Patient's bilirubin level is first 28 micromole/litre and direct bilirubin level is 8 micromole/litre. ...
4
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2answers
113 views

Haemopoiesis (blood cell development) in bone marrow

I am currently studying the textbook Hoffbrand's Essential Haematology, eighth edition, by A. Victor Hoffbrand and David P. Steensma. Chapter 1 Haemopoiesis says the following: During normal ...
1
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1answer
37 views

How does refeeding syndrome cause pitting edema?

In the answer to "How do you feed a starving person in a way that won't kill them?", it is mentioned that refeeding syndrome can cause peripheral edema. How does this occur?

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