Questions tagged [virus]

For questions about how viruses influence your health. General questions about viruses are off-topic but might be asked on Biology Stack Exchange; for questions about computer viruses, try Super User or Security Stack Exchange.

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Does viral load of the initial COVID-19 infection affect its severity?

If someone gets infected by a droplet containing a high load of the SARS-CoV-2 virus would he be more likely to develop more severe symptoms compared to someone who gets infected by a droplet ...
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How long does it take for the COVID-19 antibody to disappear?

I saw a news article says; 90 days after the infection with ncov19, several patients had no detectable antibodies in their bloodstream. This seems to be one of their evidence that immunity against ...
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How are drugs encapsidated?

I recently came across "drug encapsidation". So far, I have come to understand that it is a technique to insert drug particles/molecules in the protein shell of a virus, namely the capsid. But I ...
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Does vomiting while feeling nausea from stomach flu make it easier or harder for the body to recover?

I was talking with somebody who believes that when having stomach flu (gastroenteritis) and feeling nausea, you should try to vomit. This person's theory is that the stomach flu virus makes some foods ...
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Would a vaccine made for humans work on animals who can get the same virus?

Recently it has been reported some dogs and cats getting covid-19. This doesnt seem to be so common I suppose, since we only hear about a few cases but I'm assuming they can transmit the virus anyway. ...
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Is there a spread of immunity agains viruses due to failed infections?

As an interested layperson (having small kids) I was told and read that some viruses are extremely infectious. E.g., very few virus particles of Norovirus (some say less than five) can cause an ...
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Does someone in world already have antibodies against Wuhan coronavirus?

There's this interactive map showing progression of Wuhan coronavirus. And among other indicators it also shows number of cured individuals (38 at the moment), which is less than number of deaths, but ...
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HPV 51 positive male - how to avoid cancer?

From what I know: HPV 51 is considered carcinogenic There is currently no reliable method to completely cure it What can be done to mitigate the risks? How to detect cancer development? Are any ...
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Why wouldn't the Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca, and Johnson & Johnson vaccines be equally effective?

Based on what I have read, the Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca, and Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccines all work by training the immune system to recognize the spike protein on the surface of the ...
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Can we become infected with a virus that reaches our body in a bacterium?

I read that bacteria can be infected by viruses. Are there viruses that affect both organisms (bacteria and humans)? Is it possible to get a virus from a bacterial infection (the bacteria is the ...
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Are there already statistics about the spread of common viral diseases in the Covid-19 pandemic era?

Are there already public statistics regarding the spread of other viral diseases since the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, and the application of mandatory protection rules (e.g. protection masks, ...
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Which HPV types are detectable by the immune system to remove it from body?

Some resources (like WHO) says that HPV can be cleared by the immune system as the following. WHO There are many types of HPV, and many do not cause problems. HPV infections usually clear up without ...
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How quickly does soap inactivate enveloped viruses, e.g. influenza, compared to antiseptics like alcohol?

To begin with, I'm not talking about merely washing away a virus with soap (and water), but rather that enveloped viruses, like influenza appear to also be directly attacked in their lipid envelope by ...
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Other than death, what are the potential long-term health impacts on individuals infected with COVID-19?

There is a lot of concern about deaths resulting from or exacerbated by SARS-CoV-2 infections, but I can find little about the potential long-term health impacts on those who 'recover' (understandably,...
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Is there a model that explains why Italy is the second most affected country by COVID-19?

I'm wondering if there's a model which explains why Italy is currently, judging by the data, the second most affected country by COVID-19. I'm not only talking about deaths but also infections. It ...
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By how much could we accelerate medical development of a vaccine for a pandemic?

Imagine a worst case scenario. Millions of people infected by an virus in the west. Governments willing to provide all ressources, no matter the cost. Could a hugely increased budget even be ...
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Database with cases of coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

Does exist database with symptoms of 2019-nCoV (without personal data) and especially the duration of illness. How long it lasts? Who can access this data? I want to do some data mining(to calculate ...
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How long should I quarantine items contaminated with the HSV-1 Virus (Cold Sore)?

I wanted to know how long does the HSV-1 virus lasts on, say, a tube of lip-balm? The reason I ask is I believe I gave myself a new cold sore by using a tube of lip balm that I had last used when I ...
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Should everyone take the ebola vaccine to achieve global herd immunity?

Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses. 1 Should everyone in the ...
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Should a person with warts avoid baths to avoid the spread of HPV to other body parts?

The cause of warts in general is the Human papillomavirus, or HPV for short. If I understand it correctly, HPV causes both genital warts and warts on toes. Does this mean that if a person with a wart ...
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What is the mechanism behind the association between azathioprine use and a higher risk of developing lymphoma?

We know that use of azathioprine and other thiopurines is associated with a small but statistically significant increase in the risk of developing lymphoma, as shown in [1] and several other easily ...
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has your body killed a cold virus before you experience any symptoms?

A friend tells me that by the time you feel the first symptoms of a cold (runny nose, sore throat, whatever the first symptoms are), your immune system has actually already killed the virus, and the ...
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Is the common cold deadly to a suppressed immune system?

If you were taking an immune system suppressant such as Prograf (Tacrolimus) for a long period of time would a virus like the common cold linger in the body and cause infection over time and possibly ...
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What is the minimum exposure to a virus to acheive immunization?

Is it possible to gain immunity against a virus if the exposure to the virus is not large enough to cause any clinical symptoms? And if so, would the immunity achieved without symptoms be as strong as ...
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Is the use of antibiotics justified for respiratory viral infections?

It is a widespread belief that antibiotics should not be used for treating viral infections, as they are effective against bacteria, not viruses (see e.g. http://www.cdc.gov/features/getsmart/). ...
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Are microbes that don't make you sick able to reproduce more numerously or at a faster rate in the human body than microbes that do make you sick?

Are microbes that don't make you sick able to reproduce more numerously or at a faster rate in the human body than microbes that do make you sick? I wouldn't want to assume much on this question.
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How durable is a human immunity to an adenovirus (at least specific serotypes)?

There are few SARS-Cov-2 vaccines that use adenovirus vectors as vehicles (human's Ad5, Ad26, chimps' ChAdOx1, probably something else). A side effect of such a vaccine is that an inoculated organism ...
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Could using machine-intelligence to determine prioritisation for vaccine rollout program be effective

The rollout of vaccination programs tends to be based on a given set of rules (advice) devised by government UK example. Such a rule-set are generally limited in complexity in order to be consistently ...
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UK - Sweden Covid-19 Comparison

I compared Covid-19 data on the 17th of October 2020, using this source: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html UK population = 66650000 Uk cases = 708297 UK deaths = 43669 66650000 / 708297 = 1 ...
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Have any novel virus or bacteria ever been created by man in the laboratory that we know of?

This question may be off topic for medicine. Let us not consider COVID19. Are there any known man made viruse or bacteria ever created or modified by man that we know of? Bio weapons labs weaponize ...
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How to disinfect ice cream from coronavirus?

It is well known that some ways to remove coronavirus from food are: washing/cleaning it carefully; heating it (e.g. in oven, microwave or a saucepan), at least 70 degrees for at least 5 minutes; ...
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What are the current statics of the flu globally since december 2019 until today?

I can only find the current statics for the US that says "Between 36 million and 51 million people have been stricken with the flu as of March 7, according to the latest CDC data." link: https://www....
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Do common colds transmit poorly through mouth-to-mouth kisses?

The Guardian (in 2017) chose to highlight this study In 1984, researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison decided to investigate one of the best-known ways of catching a cold. They infected ...
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COVID-19 Contact tracing- Is there any clarity on the duration of “contact”

I was somewhat surprised to hear that contract tracers are instructed to disregard contacts between an known infected person (positive tested) person and their contacts if the duration of a contact is ...
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What is the difference between Dry cough, Wet cough, Chesty Cough, Barking cough?

I am doing some research on cough sounds but my background is not health sector and I am facing issues to identify the correct type of cough. I have two doubts : Is chesty cough Wet cough? Is ...
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Is this explanation of coronavirus accurate?

I have seen the following post popping up on Facebook recently: 🧐🧐🧐 Feeling confused as to why Coronavirus is a bigger deal than Seasonal flu? Here it is in a nutshell. I hope this ...
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Why would someone, healthy and 10-39 years old, infected with covid-19 might die?

From https://ourworldindata.org/coronavirus we can see that a person between 10 and 39 years old has a probability of 0.2% of dying, which is very low but meaningful. See also this table below for ...
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Why are bacteriophage viruses so infrequently used in the western countries?

Bacteriophages are, in eastern countries including Russia, a pretty common, or at least well known, approach to get rid of bacterial infections. (This is discussed in How Dangerous Are Superbugs ...
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Viruses evolving in less dangerous forms

My question could be naive, but I was not able to find an answer. I have read at several places that viruses tend to evolve to less dangerous forms (HIV for example), se they do not run out of hosts, ...
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Can Protein Folding be used to develop a vaccine against the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)?

Scientists are researching the possibility to create a universal influenza vaccine 1. The influenza virus already has many strains 2 and evolves itself rapidly into new strains because influenza uses ...
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How do STIs and STDs physically enter the body?

Nurses and health practitioners will tell you to wear a condom to prevent contracting an STD/STI, and will supplement this with "diseases and infections can be transmitted through bodily fluids which ...
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Publication on the virulence of diseases which are likely transfered by used needles from addicts

There are many (work)places, where one could get pricked accidentally by a used needle which was thrown away by a careless drug addict. Which diseases are typically present on used needles is ...
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Is viral keratitis contagious?

Is viral keratitis contagious? I'm asking, as I'm not getting any authentic material on the net.
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What is the significance of “patients zero” in infectious disease beyond epidemiology?

A common focus of press releases following outbreak of a "new" infectious disease is the "patient zero", or first individual to show infection. Why? I can understand how epidemiologically it would be ...
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Why does fish have a lower minimum safe-cooking temperature?

Food safety guidelines suggest cooking fish to at least 130F. Chicken, in contrast, should be cooked to at least 165F. Perhaps the bacteria/viruses found in fish die at lower temperatures. If so, why ...
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How is measured the transmission rate of virusses?

I would like to know how is measured the transmission rate of viruses, for example, there is a 'normal' flu, his transmission rate is '1', but for a virus like H1N1 the transmission rate is '0.2' ...
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Accurate embryo age and Zika virus

I've been reading many articles trying to find the age above which there is no risk on the embryo from a Zika virus infection. All what I got was similar to "very dangerous at the beginning" or "not ...
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How are two-dose vaccine schedules developed?

How are vaccination schedules determined for multi-dose vaccines? That is, are several different schedules tested in an early-phase trial? Or do the developers of a vaccine choose a schedule (based on ...
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How soon after a small skin cut will the skin restore its bacteria/virus defense?

I am asking in the context of preventing STD transmission via small cuts in the hand as in the image : https://thumbs.dreamstime.com/b/cut-finger-wound-closeup-human-hand-hurt-bleeding-healthcare-...
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How do cleaning supplies, such as hand sanitizer or Clorox wipes, kill viruses?

I know that viruses are not living or nonliving things, and thus they cannot be "killed." I was wondering how the viruses would no longer be able to infect people after the application of things like ...