Questions tagged [virus]

For questions about how viruses influence your health. General questions about viruses are off-topic but might be asked on Biology Stack Exchange; for questions about computer viruses, try Super User or Security Stack Exchange.

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Why wouldn't the Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca, and Johnson & Johnson vaccines be equally effective?

Based on what I have read, the Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca, and Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccines all work by training the immune system to recognize the spike protein on the surface of the ...
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How are two-dose vaccine schedules developed?

How are vaccination schedules determined for multi-dose vaccines? That is, are several different schedules tested in an early-phase trial? Or do the developers of a vaccine choose a schedule (based on ...
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Do lockdowns lead to more contagious and more deadly (Covid) virus mutations?

Reduction in social contact, without full restriction of social contact, creates an environment where the 'success' of a virus depends more on how infectious it is and less on how good it is at ...
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How durable is a human immunity to an adenovirus (at least specific serotypes)?

There are few SARS-Cov-2 vaccines that use adenovirus vectors as vehicles (human's Ad5, Ad26, chimps' ChAdOx1, probably something else). A side effect of such a vaccine is that an inoculated organism ...
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Does viral load of the initial COVID-19 infection affect its severity?

If someone gets infected by a droplet containing a high load of the SARS-CoV-2 virus would he be more likely to develop more severe symptoms compared to someone who gets infected by a droplet ...
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Can we become infected with a virus that reaches our body in a bacterium?

I read that bacteria can be infected by viruses. Are there viruses that affect both organisms (bacteria and humans)? Is it possible to get a virus from a bacterial infection (the bacteria is the ...
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How can vaccines be effective against respiratory viruses when it is the innate immune system that is the primary response to such pathogens?

I don't understand how vaccines can be thought to be effective against respiratory viruses. We have influenza "vaccines" and now the new mRNA vaccine against COVID-19. However, my ...
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Is the code from the mRNA vaccine executed by the cells as a one-off? [closed]

Is the code from the mRNA vaccine executed by the cell that has taken it up as a one-off or does the cell produce the spike proteins endlessly (like a programming loop) until the cell is killed by the ...
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1answer
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Is there any infection that targets/found in specifically the nape of the neck?

Is there any infection(s) of the nape caused by a foreign body (bacterial, viral, fungal, etc)? I mean a foreign body infection found or originating primarily or solely in the nape. I know some ENT ...
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Could the COVID-19 vaccine adversely impact healthy protein reception?

I'm not a health expert, just trying to understand possible long-term side effects of the vaccine, so if my terminology and thinking is off, feel free to correct. The prominent vaccines right now are ...
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Nasal spray or oral spray against airborne viruses

I'm seeing different approaches to try protect/alleviate against airborne viruses (e.g. HRV). Let's take some examples: Enzymatica ColdZyme - oral spray P&G Vicks First Defense - nasal spray ...
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For fighting COVID19, Why we give the body the RNA and not give the body the protien itself? [duplicate]

If I understand things correctly the popular COVID 19 vaccine gives the body RNA that teaches the body cells to create a protein that looks like the virus. And then the body learns to fight against it....
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How can “new viruses” exist? [closed]

Background: I have no background in medical sciences, and this is something I've been thinking about since the start of the Covid-19 pandemic; please ELI5 your answer if you can. Thanks! We estimate ...
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What is the difference between Dry cough, Wet cough, Chesty Cough, Barking cough?

I am doing some research on cough sounds but my background is not health sector and I am facing issues to identify the correct type of cough. I have two doubts : Is chesty cough Wet cough? Is ...
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How do mRNA vaccines work and what are their advantages over traditional vaccines?

How do mRNA vaccines work? To my intuitive understanding, for an mRNA vaccine to work, the mRNAs injected into the patient need to first enter a cell and get translated into proteins. Those proteins ...
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COVID-19 Variants

I have been looking at this "new variant" of the virus which causes COVID-19 and the British Medical Journal has said What do we know about this new SARS-CoV-2 variant? It’s been snappily ...
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Have there been vaccines in the past, which revealed side effects only after extended periods of times? [duplicate]

Obviously we don't have precedent for mRNA vaccines like the now available SARS-CoV-2 vaccine from German-American Joint Venture Biontech/Pfizer. But how about the other, more conventional vaccine ...
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Could using machine-intelligence to determine prioritisation for vaccine rollout program be effective

The rollout of vaccination programs tends to be based on a given set of rules (advice) devised by government UK example. Such a rule-set are generally limited in complexity in order to be consistently ...
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Is it possible to increase viral load and COVID-19 disease severity through subsequent infectious doses? [closed]

There is potentially a causal chain leading from high initial infectious dose to high viral load to high disease severity for COVID-19. See, for example, evidence surveyed here. However, once someone ...
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1answer
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Given that reinfection is possible with the flu viruses, why didn't the 1918 flu pandemic last forever?

We know that reinfection is possible with the seasonal flu and one could surmise that it was also possible with the 1918 flu strain. But if reinfection is possible and immunity to the flu doesn't last ...
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1answer
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What makes “chickenpox parties” recommended?

Prior to the availability of the chickenpox vaccine in the mid-90s, I recall the prevailing medical recommendation was to expose children to the virus at "chickenpox parties" with other kids ...
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UK - Sweden Covid-19 Comparison

I compared Covid-19 data on the 17th of October 2020, using this source: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html UK population = 66650000 Uk cases = 708297 UK deaths = 43669 66650000 / 708297 = 1 ...
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Are lockdowns good or bad? What is the scientific consensus, if any? [closed]

I thought doctors support lockdown measures and populist politicians oppose them, but then this "Barrington Declaration" cropped up and I don't know what to think now. Are lockdowns good or ...
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What happens to HIV once it completely destroys the immune system?

Today, in my high school health class we were learning about HIV and AIDS, and I was wondering what would happen to HIV if it killed off all of the cells that it uses to reproduce. For example, ...
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Are there already statistics about the spread of common viral diseases in the Covid-19 pandemic era?

Are there already public statistics regarding the spread of other viral diseases since the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, and the application of mandatory protection rules (e.g. protection masks, ...
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Is outside food really safe to eat during COVID-19 outbreak?

There are 2 contradicting messages out there that mandate this question: "It may be possible that a person can get COVID-19 by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching ...
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Which HPV types are detectable by the immune system to remove it from body?

Some resources (like WHO) says that HPV can be cleared by the immune system as the following. WHO There are many types of HPV, and many do not cause problems. HPV infections usually clear up without ...
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1answer
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Is it possible to remove HPV from the body by strengthening the immune system?

I saw some content which says HPV can be removed from the body by strengthening the immune system: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/surv-manual/chpt05-hpv.html Most HPV infections are transient and ...
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Can oseltamivir shorten the duration of COVID-19 and inhibit replication and transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) virus?

Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) is an antiviral medication used to treat and prevent influenza A and influenza B (flu). It is said to reduce symptom duration even when initiated more than 2 days after symptom ...
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How soon after a small skin cut will the skin restore its bacteria/virus defense?

I am asking in the context of preventing STD transmission via small cuts in the hand as in the image : https://thumbs.dreamstime.com/b/cut-finger-wound-closeup-human-hand-hurt-bleeding-healthcare-...
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Would a vaccine made for humans work on animals who can get the same virus?

Recently it has been reported some dogs and cats getting covid-19. This doesnt seem to be so common I suppose, since we only hear about a few cases but I'm assuming they can transmit the virus anyway. ...
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How long does it take for the COVID-19 antibody to disappear?

I saw a news article says; 90 days after the infection with ncov19, several patients had no detectable antibodies in their bloodstream. This seems to be one of their evidence that immunity against ...
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Are there any epidemiological or laboratory studies on the effectiveness of variolation?

Variolation has been brought up in some circles nowadays as a proposal to deal with the Covid-19 crisis (sometimes by invoking the glorious/revolutionary American past). Looking at the aforementioned ...
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A cheap and easy inactivated vaccine for COVID-19

Suppose a person with COVID-19 coughs into a bag. Let the bag sit in the sun for, say, 72 hours -- so as to make the virus inactive. Could a healthy person breathe in the inactivated virus from the ...
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What is the main way COVID-19 spreads?

Reading numerous news articles about COVID-19, I got confused as to what is its main transmission route. In particular, I am confused as to whether it is direct landing of respiratory droplets in ...
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Have any novel virus or bacteria ever been created by man in the laboratory that we know of?

This question may be off topic for medicine. Let us not consider COVID19. Are there any known man made viruse or bacteria ever created or modified by man that we know of? Bio weapons labs weaponize ...
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Can SARS-CoV-2 possibly overcome herd immunity without mutation in densely populated countries and places? [closed]

Can the coronavirus that causes covid-19 possibly overcome herd immunity without mutation using immune individuals as hubs till it reaches vulnerable individuals in very densely populated countries ...
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How did COVID-19 jump the species barrier?

I am not a medical professional. I also do not have enough knowledge on medicine or biology. But I have been wondering a lot about one question in particular for some time: How did COVID-19 jump the ...
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Are betadine mouthwashes really effective against COVID-19?

Recently news have come up that betadine/povidone-iodine mouthwashes should be used for prevention of COVID-19. Betadine is an antiseptic. We use it in our clinic to clean a wound or after minor ...
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1answer
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Could the Cuban coronavirus antiviral be a mass cure for COVID-19?

Sometime around 1981, the Cubans invented an antiviral treatment for coronavirus. What is its relative efficacy against COVID-19? What are the pathways and obstacles for it making its way to being a ...
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Is the common cold deadly to a suppressed immune system?

If you were taking an immune system suppressant such as Prograf (Tacrolimus) for a long period of time would a virus like the common cold linger in the body and cause infection over time and possibly ...
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1answer
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What makes a person asymptomatic? How does it work?

As someone who's simply asking out of curiosity, I've tried looking into the topic myself, but often times I run into answers with little or no detail on the subject. Sometimes the question is more ...
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Does bleach have to be diluted to be more effective to kill virus?

This page Bleach claims Bleach is more effective at killing germs when diluted than when used straight out of the bottle. this other page (Spanish) Alcohol and Bleach are more effective against ...
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How to disinfect ice cream from coronavirus?

It is well known that some ways to remove coronavirus from food are: washing/cleaning it carefully; heating it (e.g. in oven, microwave or a saucepan), at least 70 degrees for at least 5 minutes; ...
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Has World Health Organization provided nutrition/diet/exercise guidelines to strengthen the human immune system for better responding to COVID-19?

Medical sciences is not my subject but my personal feeling is that: A strengthen immune system can better respond to viruses than a weak immune system. A balanced diet in combination with exercise ...
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What is the Fatality Rate of the Common Cold?

During COVID-19, we've heard many comparisons between SARS-CoV-2 and the Flu, especially in terms of the case fatality rate (CFR). Currently, the Flu is thought to be around 0.1%, and according to the ...
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What happens to viruses that causes them to die?

It's been said that SARS-CoV-2 can remain on surfaces up to 9 or 10 days. While I read that smallpox can survive out of a host even for years. As much as I know, since viruses are only protein ...
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If I microwave an infected piece of, let's say, cloth, for a minute or two, would it become disinfected?

This article suggests temperatures over 150 degrees Fahrenheit kill viruses. So, forgive my ignorance on the subject, but does this mean that if I microwave a potentially infected (i.e. with viruses ...
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If a rabid wolf bites your head and you have recently been vaccinated against rabies, will you still develop the disease?

I have read that if a large rabid animal bites your head, the post-exposure treatment can be ineffective: ...a bite near the head will make the disease act too fast for the treatment to take effect....
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How quickly does soap inactivate enveloped viruses, e.g. influenza, compared to antiseptics like alcohol?

To begin with, I'm not talking about merely washing away a virus with soap (and water), but rather that enveloped viruses, like influenza appear to also be directly attacked in their lipid envelope by ...

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