Questions tagged [vaccination]

treat with a vaccine to produce immunity against a disease; inoculation.

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Are Covishield and AstraZeneca AZD1222 the same?

Some sources simply equate the two. On the other hand, Covishield seems to be undergoing its own clinical trials. The statement by the Indian authorities calls it “Recombinant Chimpanzee Adenovirus ...
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How are two-dose vaccine schedules developed?

How are vaccination schedules determined for multi-dose vaccines? That is, are several different schedules tested in an early-phase trial? Or do the developers of a vaccine choose a schedule (based on ...
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Might the lack of Flu this year cause a problem creating next years flu vaccine?

According to this article, the UK lockdowns have had the effect of virtually eliminating Flu. As most of Europe/ The World has seen similar lockdowns, my expectation is that this would be reflected in ...
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How fast could mRNA COVID manufacturers switch from the Wuhan strain to e.g. B.1.1.7 and why?

I understand that the time it took Modena to go from the SARS-CoV-2 sequence to shipping doses for clinical trial was 44 days: https://www.modernatx.com/modernas-work-potential-vaccine-against-covid-...
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Can COVID-19 vaccines cause birth defects?

Have regulators historically allowed enough time for Phase 3 trials to show that a vaccine does not cause congenital defects? Are they making an exception for Covid vaccines? Because the Pfizer/...
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Are "some serious side effects and deaths expected" from a mass vaccination campaign of a new vaccine?

According to What is known so far about the post vaccination deaths in Norway Medical director Steinar Madsen stated, Q: Were these problems unexpected? A: No. A mass vaccination campaign by ...
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How durable is a human immunity to an adenovirus (at least specific serotypes)?

There are few SARS-Cov-2 vaccines that use adenovirus vectors as vehicles (human's Ad5, Ad26, chimps' ChAdOx1, probably something else). A side effect of such a vaccine is that an inoculated organism ...
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Is there a disease where having had the disease provides less protection for the future than the vaccination?

Vaccination makes sure that you have anti-bodies so that your immune system has a heads-start once you get infected. If you were infected before, your body also built anti-bodies. Are there diseases ...
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Acetaminophen and/or ibuprofen before or after vaccination

All of a sudden (yesterday apparently) there blossomed on the major news outlets an admonition not to take either Tylenol or Advil prior to and or immediately after Covid-19 vaccination. The logic ...
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Frequency of reactions to Covid19 vaccinations

Facebook is replete with comments that 'the aftermath of the second Moderna vaccine shot was wicked', 'hit me much harder than the first' etc Understanding that many facebook postings are unreliable ...
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How much potency is lost by the end of a vaccine shelf life?

I've been researching various approaches to modelling vaccine shelf life, using Arrhenius or Q10 equations to give broad estimates. I've also looked at more complex two-step equations. What puzzles me ...
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How well are the covid-19 vaccines doing in the field?

By now, millions of people have been given the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines in the US, and the same is true for those and other vaccines in many other countries. I have not found in the media any news ...
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How does the type of syringe impact the number of doses of Corona vaccine available per vial?

In an interview with Ron Klain (Biden's Chief of Staff) on CNN this morning, it was suggested that Biden would invoke the National Defense Production act to increase the production of syringes that ...
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Why does the Pfizer’s Covid vaccine cause more intense intense symptoms after second shot then after the first shot?

cnbc.com (mirror) mentions: The FDA says Pfizer’s Covid vaccine is safe and effective. But trial participants warn of intense symptoms after second shot. Why does the Pfizer’s Covid vaccine cause ...
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How can vaccines be effective against respiratory viruses when it is the innate immune system that is the primary response to such pathogens?

I don't understand how vaccines can be thought to be effective against respiratory viruses. We have influenza "vaccines" and now the new mRNA vaccine against COVID-19. However, my ...
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Is the code from the mRNA vaccine executed by the cells as a one-off? [closed]

Is the code from the mRNA vaccine executed by the cell that has taken it up as a one-off or does the cell produce the spike proteins endlessly (like a programming loop) until the cell is killed by the ...
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Why do some vectored vaccine makers rely on 1-jab only for their Covid-19 vaccines?

While some of the medical companies like AstraZeneca and Russian Gamaleya, which use a vectored approach for their Covid-19 vaccines, choose a two-jab schedule, the others like CanSino and J&J ...
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One covid vaccine must be stored at -70 degrees Celsius [duplicate]

One covid vaccine must be stored at -70 degrees Celsius. What type of substance or mechanism ensures that the structure of the virus mRNA elements is not distorted at this temperature? And why does ...
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What does it mean for a vaccine to be "90% effective"? [duplicate]

It seems like a stupid question: does it "just" mean that 90% of the population won't be infected? But if only 10% of the population would have been infected without the vaccine, then it's ...
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Could the COVID-19 vaccine adversely impact healthy protein reception?

I'm not a health expert, just trying to understand possible long-term side effects of the vaccine, so if my terminology and thinking is off, feel free to correct. The prominent vaccines right now are ...
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CDC COVID Vaccine Administration Time Series Data?

For context, in the past the CDC has published time series data of COVID case counts by State: https://healthdata.gov/dataset/united-states-covid-19-cases-and-deaths-state-over-time Now, CDC are ...
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For fighting COVID19, Why we give the body the RNA and not give the body the protien itself? [duplicate]

If I understand things correctly the popular COVID 19 vaccine gives the body RNA that teaches the body cells to create a protein that looks like the virus. And then the body learns to fight against it....
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Which regimen of the AstraZeneca vaccine was approved (in UK and India respectively)?

The Oxford-AstraZeneca made furore two months ago for a dosage error in its 3rd phase trial. The 3000 or so trial participant who got the regimen with the erroneous dosage, showed apparent greater ...
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(Why) doesn't Moderna's Covid vaccine have an INN?

Pfizer's and even more obscure mRNA vaccines that haven't been approved have an INN, which ends with -meran (e.g. CureVac's is "zorecimeran"). But as far as I can tell Moderna's vaccine ...
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BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine efficacy after 1st dose - explain the statistics

Pfizer's paper (Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine) published recently states the following in the Efficacy subsection of the Results section: Between the first dose and the ...
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Why do adults need vaccination boosters? [duplicate]

In the UK at the moment there's some controversy regarding the changing of the timing of the Covid vaccination boosters. All the vaccines I can think of that need boosters are given to babies, whose ...
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Why Herpes Vaccine Hasn't Been Discovered Yet While Corona Vaccines Find Its Way Within A Year? [closed]

There is one question constantly running in my mind: how were COVID-19 vaccines discovered in a very short time span, but Herpes did not find its way even after years of painstaking research?
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Will the COVID-19 vaccine grant immunity to other coronaviruses?

As I understand it, the mRNA vaccine teaches the immune system to recognize and attack the spike protein on the surface of the novel coronavirus. Don't all coronaviruses share this same spike protein? ...
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Long-term side effects of anti-covid vaccines

I am interested in statistical procedures and study designs used to determine the absence/acceptability of long-term side effects of the anti-covid vaccines. Given that these vaccines were created and ...
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Are there any educated guesses related to the type and probability of severe side effects caused by the COVID-19 vaccines?

Multiple countries have already started the COVID-19 vaccination. Local media covered this extensively and I saw that many medical doctors and researchers arguing that the vaccines are very safe ...
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Details on "Health Impact Events" on V-safe Active Surveillance for COVID-19 Vaccines

Some dubious websites (which I won't link) are claiming that COVID-19 vaccine caused disabilities in more than 3.000 people. As a support of this claim, they cite the table "V-safe Active ...
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Why does the Pfizer vaccine need storage at -70C but Moderna's only needs -20C, when they are both mRNA vaccines?

It's been widely reported in the press that Pfizer's vaccine needs storage at -70C but Moderna's only needs -20C. Why is this so, when they are both mRNA vaccines? There's actually a looong article in ...
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How do mRNA vaccines work and what are their advantages over traditional vaccines?

How do mRNA vaccines work? To my intuitive understanding, for an mRNA vaccine to work, the mRNAs injected into the patient need to first enter a cell and get translated into proteins. Those proteins ...
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How can we realistically vaccinate our way to herd immunity?

So I've been keeping track of the number of people have received a vaccine for COVID-19 in the US. If we want to vaccinate 70%-90% of the population, per latest Dr. Fauci's estimates, then we need to ...
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What are some mRNA vaccines, other than COVID vaccines, that are widely used?

From what I've read, COVID vaccines belong to mRNA vaccines category. I read in the above article that mRNA vaccines act in a different way than traditional vaccines. [..]Traditional vaccines ...
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How do pharmaceutical companies deal with people who received a placebo?

I would like to know what happens to the people in the vaccine studies who received a placebo. Essentially they have not been vaccinated. However, in order for the study to stay blind so that long ...
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How long would societal restrictions be in place if a COVID-19 vaccine has upward of 90% effectiveness? [closed]

Background Back in October, Dr. Fauci said that the United States will need societal restrictions potentially until the beginning of 2022 according to WebMD: Coronavirus vaccines -- once approved and ...
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How can a vaccine prevent an individual from getting a disease but not from transmitting it?

In the news about the COVID-19 vaccines which are about to begin distribution, I've seen statements to the effect that "it’s not clear if the shot keeps the disease from being transmitted" (...
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Why use sucrose rather than glucose in an injectable vaccine?

These are the ingredients of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine: Medicinal: mRNA Non-medicinal: ALC-0315 = ((4-hydroxybutyl)azanediyl)bis(hexane-6,1-diyl)bis(2-hexyldecanoate) ALC-0159 = 2-[(...
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Covid vaccine side effects [closed]

The Pfizer Covid vaccine caused allergic reactions. For patients that are deemed to be at an increased risk of adverse side effects following a risk assessment (e.g. because of diabetes, heart disease)...
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How come moderna vaccine can last at much more much higher temperature than Pfizer's vaccine?

I've read recently that Moderna's vaccine for covid-19 can last at around 60 degree more than Pfizer's. My question is why, given that they both use the same technique? references: https://...
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Have there been vaccines in the past, which revealed side effects only after extended periods of times? [duplicate]

Obviously we don't have precedent for mRNA vaccines like the now available SARS-CoV-2 vaccine from German-American Joint Venture Biontech/Pfizer. But how about the other, more conventional vaccine ...
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Are there vaccines which have a varying effect on people of different ethnicities?

As per the New York Times: Moderna’s problem seemed fitting for late summer 2020, when the United States was reeling from not just a pandemic but unrest over racial injustice. Dr. Slaoui informed Mr. ...
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Can an individual who has had a covid-19 vaccination test positive and is that a problem?

Can an individual who has had a covid-19 vaccination test positive and is that a problem? Up to now and for some time to come, testing has been important to help control the spread of this disease. ...
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Does being vaccinated prevent transmission of disease if you catch it

Each year, many people get the flu vaccine (and I'm sure there are many more other than flu). Even if you get this vaccine, and from what I've understood, you can still catch the same strain of flu as ...
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What percentage of vaccines are deemed unsafe at which stage in the testing?

What percentage of vaccines are deemed unsafe at what stage of the testing? Is it common that vaccines reach stage 2 for example and are deemed unsafe there? What about vaccines making it to stage 3? ...
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Necessity of flu shots under pandemic living conditions [closed]

Is the following logic valid? Getting an influenza vaccine is less necessary this season, if one is going to live under conditions (mask-wearing, drastically reduced contacts with others etc) designed ...
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Are there independent studies on the efficacy of vaccines?

Is there a collection, meta analysis or review of significant, independent studies that prove the efficacy of vaccinations? I am in discussion with a anti-vaccinationist who claims that the efficacy ...
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What does "pause" mean in Covid19 Vaccine Clinical Trials?

Johnson and Johnson as well as Astra Zeneca recently announced that they were going to "pause" in their respective clinical trials for a Covid19 vaccine. What exactly are they "pausing&...
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Does an hpv vaccination still make sense after age 26?

The US CDC says that an HPV vaccination is recommended up to the age of 26. If you are older than that and not infected yet, why shouldn't it make sense to get vaccinated then?