Questions tagged [vaccination]

treat with a vaccine to produce immunity against a disease; inoculation.

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Why does the Pfizer vaccine need storage at -70C but Moderna's only needs -20C, when they are both mRNA vaccines?

It's been widely reported in the press that Pfizer's vaccine needs storage at -70C but Moderna's only needs -20C. Why is this so, when they are both mRNA vaccines? There's actually a looong article in ...
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How fast could mRNA COVID manufacturers switch from the Wuhan strain to e.g. B.1.1.7 and why?

I understand that the time it took Modena to go from the SARS-CoV-2 sequence to shipping doses for clinical trial was 44 days: https://www.modernatx.com/modernas-work-potential-vaccine-against-covid-...
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What does “pause” mean in Covid19 Vaccine Clinical Trials?

Johnson and Johnson as well as Astra Zeneca recently announced that they were going to "pause" in their respective clinical trials for a Covid19 vaccine. What exactly are they "pausing&...
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Will vaccinating babies weeks after birth reduce the spread of measles?

I understand that young babies (around 0-6 months old) have antibodies passed from their mothers, which is why they are vaccinated with MMR at 6-12 months old in New Zealand. However, there are still ...
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Would being infected with every kind of cold virus strain at once be a good immunization or dangerous?

I know colds come from around 200 different kinds of viruses. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_cold But would it be worth the risk to be purposefully infected with every type of strain that ...
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Is it possible for a specific brand of a vaccine (for Leptospirosis in dogs) to cause hepatic side effects?

I am a veterinarian in Europe and I am facing an unusual case. Within the last month, I have seen two different young dogs (3 years and 4 years old) to whom I administered a tetravalent vaccine for ...
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What percent of people in the United States are vaccinated against measles?

I am researching measles vaccination rates. Almost every source I have found focuses on immunization coverage among children (of various ages). However, I am curious what the overall population ...
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Why are dogs only vaccinated once for rabies, while humans need follow-up treatment after being bitten, even with a previous vaccination?

As stated in the title, why are dogs only vaccinated pre-exposure for rabies, while humans need follow-up treatment after being bitten, even with a pre-exposure vaccination? What is causing the ...
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What are the differences of the US vaccine schedule compared to other countries?

If the current US vaccine schedule is compared to the vaccine schedule of other large developed countries, what are the most significant differences in the US schedule vs their schedules?
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what is protection rate difference between cellular pentavac and acellular pentamaxim vaccination?

I got first 2 doses of vaccination of cellular DPT vaccine vaccine from government hospital, both caused intense irritability and fever to about 103 degree to my 3 month kid. A different doctor of ...
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Why does a tense arm worsen flu shot soreness?

Multiple nurses have told me that the key to a pain-free flu shot is to completely relax your arm. How would you explain what's going on at the cellular level when a tense muscle receives a shot and ...
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I forgot if I have taken “X” vaccine. Can the re-vaccination cause problems?

I don't remember and lost the documentation of wich vaccines I have taken in the past, for some of them (luckily, I know many I've taken). I would like to know if vaccinating again could pose health ...
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Are there vaccines that are safe to use in adults, but harmful in children?

I've recently read an article mentioning how vaccine companies are enrolling children to test if their vaccines work on kids too. But is this just a theoretical concern or is there historical ...
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Why does the Pfizer’s Covid vaccine cause more intense intense symptoms after second shot then after the first shot?

cnbc.com (mirror) mentions: The FDA says Pfizer’s Covid vaccine is safe and effective. But trial participants warn of intense symptoms after second shot. Why does the Pfizer’s Covid vaccine cause ...
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CDC COVID Vaccine Administration Time Series Data?

For context, in the past the CDC has published time series data of COVID case counts by State: https://healthdata.gov/dataset/united-states-covid-19-cases-and-deaths-state-over-time Now, CDC are ...
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Long-term side effects of anti-covid vaccines

I am interested in statistical procedures and study designs used to determine the absence/acceptability of long-term side effects of the anti-covid vaccines. Given that these vaccines were created and ...
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Are there any educated guesses related to the type and probability of severe side effects caused by the COVID-19 vaccines?

Multiple countries have already started the COVID-19 vaccination. Local media covered this extensively and I saw that many medical doctors and researchers arguing that the vaccines are very safe ...
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What is the statistical power required for COVID-19 vaccine trials?

Clinical research selects the number of subjects under treatment based on desired statistical power (i.e. the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the null is in effect false, given a ...
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Does obesity predispose to less effective vaccine response in general?

From a (2019) review on host susceptibility to influenza A virus (IAV): Obesity was identified as a risk factor for IAV infection over a decade ago and confirmed during the swine flu pandemic [30, 31]...
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Have any regulatory agencies announced they would allow live Covid-19 human challenges (for vaccine testing purposes)?

It's been mentioned to me in the discussion on another question that the following proposal has been advanced (in a medical journal): Controlled human challenge trials of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine ...
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Should everyone take the ebola vaccine to achieve global herd immunity?

Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses. 1 Should everyone in the ...
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Is PCV13 effective if the suspension is not shaken prior to administration?

PCV13, like other vaccines which are suspensions, should be shaken vigorously to obtain a homogenous, white suspension in the vaccine container immediately prior to use. If this is not done and the ...
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Vaccination boosters - is their precise timing important?

Booster vaccines are typically booked exactly 4 weeks after the prime dose, is it known how important this specific time window is? How is vaccine efficacy changed if boosters are given later than ...
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Why do some vaccines require periodical shot updates while others don't?

I was wondering, what is the reason some vaccines provide a lifelong immunity against a disease while others require periodical shots to keep one immunised against a disease.
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How does the schedule for a vaccination in multiple injections work?

My doctor advised me to get vaccinated against the Japanese encephalitis before a trip to Cambodia. He recommended three injections in order to get protected for 10 years: a first injection, a second ...
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Do I need to get re-immunized for immunities received prior to contracting measles?

One study has suggested that measles can lead to "immune memory loss", meaning immunities gained prior to measles infection can be lost. I had measles at age six. According to the (current) CDC ...
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Rabies vaccination, two 3rds of the required course

As some of you may be aware, the Rabies vaccination requires a set of 3 doses over a period of 1 month. I have "maybe" had 2 of those 3 jabs. The nurse can see on my records that 2 doses have been ...
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Is getting the chickenpox vaccination twice in a month harmful?

My 15 month old daughter was given chickenpox vaccine twice in a month by mistake. Does this pose any problem?
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Minimum time between typhoid vaccine and prednisone treatment?

Having recently completed the typhoid oral vaccine series (live attenuated), I note that one of the described drug interactions are corticosteroids. What is the nature of this drug interaction - is it ...
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Which regimen of the AstraZeneca vaccine was approved (in UK and India respectively)?

The Oxford-AstraZeneca made furore two months ago for a dosage error in its 3rd phase trial. The 3000 or so trial participant who got the regimen with the erroneous dosage, showed apparent greater ...
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How can we realistically vaccinate our way to herd immunity?

So I've been keeping track of the number of people have received a vaccine for COVID-19 in the US. If we want to vaccinate 70%-90% of the population, per latest Dr. Fauci's estimates, then we need to ...
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Can an individual who has had a covid-19 vaccination test positive and is that a problem?

Can an individual who has had a covid-19 vaccination test positive and is that a problem? Up to now and for some time to come, testing has been important to help control the spread of this disease. ...
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Does being vaccinated prevent transmission of disease if you catch it

Each year, many people get the flu vaccine (and I'm sure there are many more other than flu). Even if you get this vaccine, and from what I've understood, you can still catch the same strain of flu as ...
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Is inoculation against covid-19 an option?

Covid-19 can cause serious illness or death, and it can take survivors a very long time to recover, and even then it is unsure if recovery will be complete. The policies put in place to curb the ...
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Could I infect someone else with a disease if I have already received a vaccine for said disease?

I was recently having a conversation with someone I am very close to in which there was some confusion on how a disease (specially a virus) could be passed from person A to person B, even if person A ...
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Is it better to diversify across multiple vaccines?

It is certainly good to study multiple coronavirus vaccines at this point, but that is not what I mean by this question. What I mean is: suppose a vaccine appears safe and effective from trials, is ...
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Influenza vaccine status, non-influenza acute respiratory infections, and COVID-19

Disclaimer This is in no way an "anti-vax" post - it is intended as a serious open discussion as to possible interplay between Influenza vaccine status and non-influenza upper respiratory ...
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Why do we need booster shots, for some viruses but not the others?

When being vaccinated we are given viruses that have been killed or made 'not working' in some other way. Then we get B and T cells that can 'kill' it. For example, for polio, memory B and T cells ...
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Vaccines Research - A theorical question just out of curiosity

First of all I'd like to point out that I'm not in any medical field, nor I've the adeguate specific formation to know enough about the topic, so this question is going to be more like a "What if" ...
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Can Protein Folding be used to develop a vaccine against the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)?

Scientists are researching the possibility to create a universal influenza vaccine 1. The influenza virus already has many strains 2 and evolves itself rapidly into new strains because influenza uses ...
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Details for pre exposure prophylaxis for rabies

I will now be in contact with many unvaccinated dogs. I will have to take the pre exposure course. Please tell me how frequently it is taken. Will I require boosters if a dog bites me after I have ...
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References for comprehensive guideline for individualized vaccination schedules

For the most developed countries there exists official vaccination schedules which result from an in depth analysis of the risk-benefit ratio for the general population. I.e. it is (or should be) the ...
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Travelling to country with endemic measels - Do I need MMR shot renewed?

I was born in 1993, received my first MMR vaccine in 1994 and the booster in 1997. I'm about to travel to a country where vaccination rates are lower, and as a result, measels outbreaks still happen ...
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Is it okay to miss one of vaccine (Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) for infants?

My local health center missed Pneumococcal conjugate(PCV) for my kid scheduled (as per the plan is given in the booklet) at two months age. Then they missed the same at four months age again due to ...
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How often are people vaccinated in the unlikely event of biological-germ-warfare (ex: anthrax and ricin)?

How often are people vaccinated in the unlikely event of biological-germ-warfare (Example: anthrax and ricin)? A few years ago, a few letters laced with anthrax and ricin were sent via mail to ...
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Why do some vectored vaccine makers rely on 1-jab only for their Covid-19 vaccines?

While some of the medical companies like AstraZeneca and Russian Gamaleya, which use a vectored approach for their Covid-19 vaccines, choose a two-jab schedule, the others like CanSino and J&J ...
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What percentage of vaccines are deemed unsafe at which stage in the testing?

What percentage of vaccines are deemed unsafe at what stage of the testing? Is it common that vaccines reach stage 2 for example and are deemed unsafe there? What about vaccines making it to stage 3? ...
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RNA vaccination and autoimmune reactions

to my knowledge we do not have any robust experience with RNA vaccination. Most likely this will change in the near future as RNA vaccines against COVID are in the pipline. The rational behind this ...
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COVID19 Vaccine Clinical Trials

I am interested in learning about the details of the Phase 3 clinical trial designs for the Moderna, Pfizer/Biotech, and AstraZeneca/Oxford vaccines. I expect that the trial designs would be published ...
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How to measure how long does a vaccine last?

Recently I read someone arguing against pharmaceuticals saying COVID 19 vaccine immunity would last around a year. His argument was that how do they know that it's good for a year if a year has not ...