Questions tagged [vaccination]

treat with a vaccine to produce immunity against a disease; inoculation.

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Is there any data on herbal supplements interfering with the efficacy of vaccination?

Here's an excerpt from a paper published in "Journal of Inflammation Research" by Dove Press for a popular and controversial herbal supplement from India: Coronil effectively inhibited the ...
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Do mutations occur while growing virus for preparing inactivated viral vaccine?

The development of mutations in virus is reported to happen during replication, especially for an mRNA type virus like SARS-COV-2 Viruses that encode their genome in RNA, such as SARS-CoV-2, HIV and ...
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What cells and how many of those are infected and destroyed as a result of COVID-19 vaccine?

My understanding is that cells modified by COVID-19 vaccines will eventually get killed by immune system. Do we know what cells are usually targeted by vaccines and how many of those get killed as a ...
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How are two-dose vaccine schedules developed?

How are vaccination schedules determined for multi-dose vaccines? That is, are several different schedules tested in an early-phase trial? Or do the developers of a vaccine choose a schedule (based on ...
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Why does the Pfizer vaccine need storage at -70C but Moderna's only needs -20C, when they are both mRNA vaccines?

It's been widely reported in the press that Pfizer's vaccine needs storage at -70C but Moderna's only needs -20C. Why is this so, when they are both mRNA vaccines? There's actually a looong article in ...
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Are there adverse health risks to taking multiple COVID vaccines?

Not counting the intended double dose of the 2-dose vaccines such as Moderna and Pfizer. I can imagine this in several instances. Say someone threw away their vaccine card after the second shot, and ...
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Does antigen expression from an mRNA vaccine damage the host cell?

When mRNA (from a vaccine) enters a cell and the transcription process gets underway, the host cell effectively becomes an antigen factory. How does the antigen leave the cell so that it can trigger ...
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Might the lack of Flu this year cause a problem creating next years flu vaccine?

According to this article, the UK lockdowns have had the effect of virtually eliminating Flu. As most of Europe/ The World has seen similar lockdowns, my expectation is that this would be reflected in ...
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Why does the Pfizer’s Covid vaccine cause more intense intense symptoms after second shot then after the first shot?

cnbc.com (mirror) mentions: The FDA says Pfizer’s Covid vaccine is safe and effective. But trial participants warn of intense symptoms after second shot. Why does the Pfizer’s Covid vaccine cause ...
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Are there any educated guesses related to the type and probability of severe side effects caused by the COVID-19 vaccines?

Multiple countries have already started the COVID-19 vaccination. Local media covered this extensively and I saw that many medical doctors and researchers arguing that the vaccines are very safe ...
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What does "pause" mean in Covid19 Vaccine Clinical Trials?

Johnson and Johnson as well as Astra Zeneca recently announced that they were going to "pause" in their respective clinical trials for a Covid19 vaccine. What exactly are they "pausing&...
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Will vaccinating babies weeks after birth reduce the spread of measles?

I understand that young babies (around 0-6 months old) have antibodies passed from their mothers, which is why they are vaccinated with MMR at 6-12 months old in New Zealand. However, there are still ...
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Would being infected with every kind of cold virus strain at once be a good immunization or dangerous?

I know colds come from around 200 different kinds of viruses. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_cold But would it be worth the risk to be purposefully infected with every type of strain that ...
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Is it possible for a specific brand of a vaccine (for Leptospirosis in dogs) to cause hepatic side effects?

I am a veterinarian in Europe and I am facing an unusual case. Within the last month, I have seen two different young dogs (3 years and 4 years old) to whom I administered a tetravalent vaccine for ...
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Why are dogs only vaccinated once for rabies, while humans need follow-up treatment after being bitten, even with a previous vaccination?

As stated in the title, why are dogs only vaccinated pre-exposure for rabies, while humans need follow-up treatment after being bitten, even with a pre-exposure vaccination? What is causing the ...
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What are the differences of the US vaccine schedule compared to other countries?

If the current US vaccine schedule is compared to the vaccine schedule of other large developed countries, what are the most significant differences in the US schedule vs their schedules?
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what is protection rate difference between cellular pentavac and acellular pentamaxim vaccination?

I got first 2 doses of vaccination of cellular DPT vaccine vaccine from government hospital, both caused intense irritability and fever to about 103 degree to my 3 month kid. A different doctor of ...
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Why does a tense arm worsen flu shot soreness?

Multiple nurses have told me that the key to a pain-free flu shot is to completely relax your arm. How would you explain what's going on at the cellular level when a tense muscle receives a shot and ...
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I forgot if I have taken "X" vaccine. Can the re-vaccination cause problems?

I don't remember and lost the documentation of wich vaccines I have taken in the past, for some of them (luckily, I know many I've taken). I would like to know if vaccinating again could pose health ...
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What are the risks associated with imidazoquinoline adjuvant (used in one Covid-19 vaccine) related to development of autoimmune diseases?

Covaxin is an inactivated virus-based COVID-19 vaccine developed by Bharat Biotech. Recently, the Brazilian health regulator Anvisa raised few concerns regarding Covaxin, one of which was- use of a ...
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Why do some vaccines cause flu-like symptoms? Why does this seem to be more severe in mRNA vaccines?

Flu like symptoms are noted as possible reactions on nearly every vaccine I've had since adolescence, but I've never actually seen these symptoms in myself or anyone, until now? I don't doubt that ...
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What is the historical or scientific basis for concern about COVID vaccines and pregnant women and their babies?

There's a lot of talk about whether COVID vaccines are safe for pregnant women and their fetuses. Current guidelines, while mentioning that there's little data, suggest that they are safe. However, I'...
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What are the "theoretical risks" of COVID vaccines in mothers

In Germany, there is no official endorsement of COVID mRNA vaccines for pregnant women and nursing mothers due to a lack of study data. Still, professional societies generally recommend considering ...
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How durable is a human immunity to an adenovirus (at least specific serotypes)?

There are few SARS-Cov-2 vaccines that use adenovirus vectors as vehicles (human's Ad5, Ad26, chimps' ChAdOx1, probably something else). A side effect of such a vaccine is that an inoculated organism ...
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How well are the covid-19 vaccines doing in the field?

By now, millions of people have been given the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines in the US, and the same is true for those and other vaccines in many other countries. I have not found in the media any news ...
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Are there vaccines that are safe to use in adults, but harmful in children?

I've recently read an article mentioning how vaccine companies are enrolling children to test if their vaccines work on kids too. But is this just a theoretical concern or is there historical ...
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CDC COVID Vaccine Administration Time Series Data?

For context, in the past the CDC has published time series data of COVID case counts by State: https://healthdata.gov/dataset/united-states-covid-19-cases-and-deaths-state-over-time Now, CDC are ...
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Does obesity predispose to less effective vaccine response in general?

From a (2019) review on host susceptibility to influenza A virus (IAV): Obesity was identified as a risk factor for IAV infection over a decade ago and confirmed during the swine flu pandemic [30, 31]...
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Have any regulatory agencies announced they would allow live Covid-19 human challenges (for vaccine testing purposes)?

It's been mentioned to me in the discussion on another question that the following proposal has been advanced (in a medical journal): Controlled human challenge trials of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine ...
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Why do we need booster shots, for some viruses but not the others?

When being vaccinated we are given viruses that have been killed or made 'not working' in some other way. Then we get B and T cells that can 'kill' it. For example, for polio, memory B and T cells ...
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Should everyone take the ebola vaccine to achieve global herd immunity?

Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses. 1 Should everyone in the ...
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Is PCV13 effective if the suspension is not shaken prior to administration?

PCV13, like other vaccines which are suspensions, should be shaken vigorously to obtain a homogenous, white suspension in the vaccine container immediately prior to use. If this is not done and the ...
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What percent of people in the United States are vaccinated against measles?

I am researching measles vaccination rates. Almost every source I have found focuses on immunization coverage among children (of various ages). However, I am curious what the overall population ...
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Vaccination boosters - is their precise timing important?

Booster vaccines are typically booked exactly 4 weeks after the prime dose, is it known how important this specific time window is? How is vaccine efficacy changed if boosters are given later than ...
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Why do some vaccines require periodical shot updates while others don't?

I was wondering, what is the reason some vaccines provide a lifelong immunity against a disease while others require periodical shots to keep one immunised against a disease.
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How does the schedule for a vaccination in multiple injections work?

My doctor advised me to get vaccinated against the Japanese encephalitis before a trip to Cambodia. He recommended three injections in order to get protected for 10 years: a first injection, a second ...
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Do I need to get re-immunized for immunities received prior to contracting measles?

One study has suggested that measles can lead to "immune memory loss", meaning immunities gained prior to measles infection can be lost. I had measles at age six. According to the (current) CDC ...
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Rabies vaccination, two 3rds of the required course

As some of you may be aware, the Rabies vaccination requires a set of 3 doses over a period of 1 month. I have "maybe" had 2 of those 3 jabs. The nurse can see on my records that 2 doses have been ...
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Is getting the chickenpox vaccination twice in a month harmful?

My 15 month old daughter was given chickenpox vaccine twice in a month by mistake. Does this pose any problem?
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Minimum time between typhoid vaccine and prednisone treatment?

Having recently completed the typhoid oral vaccine series (live attenuated), I note that one of the described drug interactions are corticosteroids. What is the nature of this drug interaction - is it ...
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Which countries recommend Covid vaccine for pregnant women?

It is still controversial if pregnant women should generally be vaccinated against Covid. As far as I understood, the US-american and English authorities recommend vaccination, while the Germans do ...
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Is there UK data on the reduction in vaccine effectiveness for people who were vaccinated 5+ months ago?

Leaving aside the completely unvaccinated sections of the population (in themselves a huge problem), preliminary data from Israel and the US (in selected cohorts Mayo, CDC--on "frontline" ...
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What is the evidence for the need for rabies boosters?

Rabies prophylaxis protocols require both vaccine booster shots and multiple post-exposure booster shots, in addition to the initial "immunization". What is the evidence for the need for ...
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Does the Pfizer vaccine efficacy wane faster than Moderna's?

Mothership.sg ran this headline: Moderna's Covid-19 shot 93% effective, 6 months after 2nd dose However, Pfizer reported that their shot efficacy would reduce to around 84 per cent over the same time ...
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Are there any downsides in getting vaccinated with the Pfizer or Moderna COVID vaccine after having received the Johnson & Johnson's COVID-19 vaccine?

I read on https://www.usnews.com/news/health-news/articles/2021-07-01/reports-of-some-getting-pfizer-moderna-boosters-after-j-j-vaccine-prompts-calls-for-more-guidance (mirror): With the delta ...
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Is there any ground to delaying the second dose of of the mRNA covid-19 vaccine to reduce the risk of myocarditis?

Is there and could there be any benefit to delaying the second dose of the mRNA Pfizer covid-19 vaccine when it comes to reducing the risk of myocarditis associated with the vaccine? I'm quite sure ...
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What is the state of transmissible vaccines?

I was thinking about viral gain of function research -- and firebugs playing with matches -- when it hit me: if a highly contagious, but harmless version were engineered it could outcompete more ...
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Where can I find up-to-date information on the vaccine efficacy for different COVID-19 variants and the main COVID-19 vaccines?

I wonder if there exists some up-to-date information on the vaccine efficacy for different COVID-19 variants and the main COVID-19 vaccines (e.g., similar to COVID-19 cases trackers or COVID-19 ...
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Any known case reports of inadvertent i.v. administration of an adenovirus-based vaccine?

In connection with another question here (which discusses the theory that TTS effects in [Covid-19] adenovirus-based vaccines are due to i.v. administration error) let met ask: are there any known ...
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Covid-19 and Original Antigenic Sin

My understanding of original antigenic sin, which I admit is minimal, is that with some pathogens, your immune system gets too focused on one variant and thus is wholly unprepared to deal with a ...