Questions tagged [vaccination]

treat with a vaccine to produce immunity against a disease; inoculation.

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Why do we need vaccine boosters if covid is still going around?

I understand that some vaccines need boosters, and for most of these it makes sense. You're not constantly exposed to rabies so over time the protection will wear off. But with covid, it's still ...
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Is there a more recent official presentation (than Aug 11) on the Israel's Covid-19 vaccine effectiveness, particularly on the booster shot?

If found two-three previous ones (July, 2nd/longer variant, August 11), but Reuters claims on Aug 22 there's one about the booster effectiveness, and it's almost certainly not one of those three I ...
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How do we know that mrna-hijacked cells with spike proteins are not harmful to the body?

If I understand mRNA COVID vaccines correctly, they contain some RNA that is inserted into a cell, which then is instructed to produce the spike protein, which is typical for COVID-19 viruses. Once ...
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Risks to quick vaccine development?

I've heard that the longer a virus is in a population the less deadly it becomes. Something about deadliness being selected out from generation to generation. Had me thinking that with the speed of ...
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Why are mRNA vaccines not yet available against other diseases?

The mRNA vaccines against developing COVID-19 are obviously the first approved mRNA vaccines. We are probably at the beginning of an mRNA vaccine evolution. I've recently read a very interesting ...
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Which countries recommend Covid vaccine for pregnant women?

It is still controversial if pregnant women should generally be vaccinated against Covid. As far as I understood, the US-american and English authorities recommend vaccination, while the Germans do ...
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What is the recommended interval for HPV vaccines such as Gardasil 9 for women and men up to age 45?

In October 2018, the US Food and Drug Administration announced it had expanded the approved age for the HPV vaccine up to age 45 for women and men. In June 2019, a key advisory committee for the US ...
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Will getting a vaccine have any additional effect on your immune system if you already got covid-19?

Supposedly people who got covid-19 get immunity after it. According to this article, More SARS-COV-2 reinfections reported but still a rare event citing several studies, Bertollini and his colleagues ...
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Is there UK data on the reduction in vaccine effectiveness for people who were vaccinated 5+ months ago?

Leaving aside the completely unvaccinated sections of the population (in themselves a huge problem), preliminary data from Israel and the US (in selected cohorts Mayo, CDC--on "frontline" ...
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booster does of pfizer if someone was vaccinated with sinopharm

I am curious if there is established practice of using pfizer as booster if person was vaccinated with sinopharm. One example I think is here which says it is possible https://www.timeoutdubai.com/...
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what is risk of breakthrough infection with pfizer and delta?

There is varying information on this topic, does anybody know is there is any consensus on the rate of breakthrough infections with delta and pfizer vaccine? https://www.cnbc.com/2021/07/23/delta-...
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What are the risks associated with imidazoquinoline adjuvant (used in one Covid-19 vaccine) related to development of autoimmune diseases?

Covaxin is an inactivated virus-based COVID-19 vaccine developed by Bharat Biotech. Recently, the Brazilian health regulator Anvisa raised few concerns regarding Covaxin, one of which was- use of a ...
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Is there a reason to be anxious about claim that COVID-19 vaccine could turn out to be inducing infertility in females?

There is a petition written on December 1, 2020 to European Medicines Agency (EMA) by Dr. med. Wolfgang Wodarg and Dr. Michael Yeadon. You can see it here. Both of them are well known for spreading ...
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Can the HPV vaccine be effective if you are already infected? [closed]

I was just wondering about this subject, when I did a blood exam today and I picked a paper about available vaccines and I saw a vaccine against HPV, the same my mom always bothered me to take it. I'm ...
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RNA/mRna vaccines and the innate immune responses

a simple question i was asking to myself, is : If the reprogramming of the so-called "innate immune responses" is definitive (permanent) or temporary (will last once) while using mRna/RNA ...
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What is the evidence for the need for rabies boosters?

Rabies prophylaxis protocols require both vaccine booster shots and multiple post-exposure booster shots, in addition to the initial "immunization". What is the evidence for the need for ...
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Mix-&-Match of 3 COVID-19 Vaccines?

Now that getting the third shot of COVID-19 vaccine is allowed, which one of the following order of 3 vaccines will lead to better protection and more robust immune system response against Covid-19 ...
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What does the term "person vaccinated-days" mean

A number of papers relating to COVID-19 Vaccination refer to the occurrence of thrombotic events. Rates of occurrence are usually expressed in the form of "cases of thrombotic events per million ...
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Vaccine efficacy to get FDA approval

What is the required efficacy level for a COVID-19 vaccine to get FDA approval? I heard the numbers 50% and 60% - but can not find any document which would explicitly say so. My concern is that two ...
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How does getting 2 or 3 shots of the Pfizer or Moderna COVID vaccine compare against 1 shot Johnson & Johnson's vaccine + 1 shot of Pfizer or Moderna?

I wonder how does getting 2 or 3 shots of the Pfizer or Moderna COVID vaccine compare against 1 shot Johnson & Johnson's vaccine + 1 or 2 shots of Pfizer or Moderna, in terms of COVID-19 ...
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Immunoglobulin E (IgE) level and covid vaccine

I am finding hard to find information if a person has say higher than average level of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is it safe to do covid vaccine?
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What's the term for fainting when you get a needle without apprehension?

So I will often faint when I get a needle, both for vaccinations and blood tests. This is not because I have any apprehension about the needle. If I lie down for the needle rather than sitting it has ...
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Does the Pfizer vaccine efficacy wane faster than Moderna's?

Mothership.sg ran this headline: Moderna's Covid-19 shot 93% effective, 6 months after 2nd dose However, Pfizer reported that their shot efficacy would reduce to around 84 per cent over the same time ...
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How would a global vaccination campaign stop COVID-19, rather than favor new mutation?

According to this report by Public Health England (p.35): whilst vaccination may reduce an individual’s overall risk of becoming infected, once they are infected there is limited difference in viral ...
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COVID vaccines and autoimmune conditions

According to the CDC there are only two contraindications to receiving the COVID vaccine: Severe allergic reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis) after a previous dose or to a component of the COVID-19 vaccine ...
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Did the efficacy of any vaccines (>=90%) change after public vaccination began?

As I understand, efficacy was given after the 3rd trial. Pfizer and Sputnik-V had above 90% efficacy. I might have missed others, not sure. After being given to the public as part of vaccination ...
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Why is booster shot needed when mRNA vaccines can induce memory cells?

My understanding about mRNA Covid-19 vaccines and memory cell is that they do induce memory T cell response similar to natural infection, and thus provide long term protection via the memory cell ...
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How long does it take to develop severe side effects to the Covid-19 vaccines?

I am looking into getting one of the vaccines, but I'm worried about severe side effects. All the articles I have read online say unimportant side effects like fatigue, headache become apparent in a ...
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Are there any downsides in getting vaccinated with the Pfizer or Moderna COVID vaccine after having received the Johnson & Johnson's COVID-19 vaccine?

I read on https://www.usnews.com/news/health-news/articles/2021-07-01/reports-of-some-getting-pfizer-moderna-boosters-after-j-j-vaccine-prompts-calls-for-more-guidance (mirror): With the delta ...
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Verify/calculate VE from study data

I’m trying to calculate the vaccine efficacy of a study in an effort to understand a bit more about the field but I can’t get to their result. Here’s what I’m doing:
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Why is the likelihood of fainting after the Johnson & Johnson's COVID-19 Vaccine 163 times higher than the likelihood of fainting after flu vaccine?

I read on https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/janssen.html (mirror): Fainting After Vaccination Fainting (syncope) and other events that may be related to anxiety ...
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(How) does taking all available vaccines contribute to cross- and trained immunity?

Many countries have national vaccination campaigns that consists of vaccines against several different diseases. I expect that the choice of vaccines that are included in such programs is mainly ...
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If you've already been infected with SARS-CoV-2, do the vaccines cause fewer side effects?

Assuming that I had Covid-19 not so long ago. My body should have produced some type of antibodies to defend against the infection*. If I now get one of the vaccines, would it be more likely that ...
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AstraZeneca total vaccinated up to this day

I'm trying to find answer to question in title but no luck. Is there any verifiable source that can give some estimation on number of people vaccinated with AstraZeneca up to this day?
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Factor-V-Leiden Mutation and COVID-19 vaccinations

When the thrombosis cases related to the COVID-19 vaccinations came up, I tried to assess my personal risk from my Factor-V-Leiden mutation. It was diagnosed when the whole family was screened, and ...
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Why aren't mRNA vaccines being updated for new variants?

From what I understand, updating an mRNA vaccine is trivial. According to this answer, no or small clinical trials would be needed to update the vaccine, and updating production would also be trivial. ...
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Is there any ground to delaying the second dose of of the mRNA covid-19 vaccine to reduce the risk of myocarditis?

Is there and could there be any benefit to delaying the second dose of the mRNA Pfizer covid-19 vaccine when it comes to reducing the risk of myocarditis associated with the vaccine? I'm quite sure ...
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Which vaccine has the least number of reported users getting infected even after vaccination?

I have been reading news about people getting infected with COVID-19 despite getting the AstraZeneca vaccine. I am not sure if it's similar with other vaccines. May I ask which vaccines have zero (...
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How should we interpret COVID-19 vaccines "efficacy"? [duplicate]

Different COVID-19 vaccines are said to have x% efficacy (x ~ 85%-95%). How should we understand this? There are several ways in which we could interpret this measure: Is it the expected percentage of ...
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Is AstraZeneca having better safety record than Pfizer or Moderna?

Recently, AstraZeneca vaccine got some bad press for few cases of blood clouts as side effect leading some countries to even suspend its use for people younger than 56 (see here). I am not a medical ...
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What is the state of transmissible vaccines?

I was thinking about viral gain of function research -- and firebugs playing with matches -- when it hit me: if a highly contagious, but harmless version were engineered it could outcompete more ...
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Does antigen expression from an mRNA vaccine damage the host cell?

When mRNA (from a vaccine) enters a cell and the transcription process gets underway, the host cell effectively becomes an antigen factory. How does the antigen leave the cell so that it can trigger ...
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Covid-19 incubation period for vaccinated people

1The incubation period for covid-19 can be even something like 14 days. I guess this can be caused by having no specific immunity to this disease, so it takes some time for the immune system to react. ...
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Where can I find up-to-date information on the vaccine efficacy for different COVID-19 variants and the main COVID-19 vaccines?

I wonder if there exists some up-to-date information on the vaccine efficacy for different COVID-19 variants and the main COVID-19 vaccines (e.g., similar to COVID-19 cases trackers or COVID-19 ...
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Do mutations occur while growing virus for preparing inactivated viral vaccine?

The development of mutations in virus is reported to happen during replication, especially for an mRNA type virus like SARS-COV-2 Viruses that encode their genome in RNA, such as SARS-CoV-2, HIV and ...
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Scheduling second Pfizer vaccine

I've had my first Pfizer vaccine and the second is scheduled 11 weeks after the first one. I may have to postpone it though. If I cancel it, what is the latest date I can take the second dose without ...
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COVID19 Vaccine Clinical Trials

I am interested in learning about the details of the Phase 3 clinical trial designs for the Moderna, Pfizer/Biotech, and AstraZeneca/Oxford vaccines. I expect that the trial designs would be published ...
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Blood count and adenovirus vaccines

Some covid-19 adenovirus vaccines including AstraZenca and Johnson & Johnson are found to have potential link to a rare albeit serious side effect resulting in blood clots with low platelets, ...
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Was there ever a vaccine candidate that showed negative side effects many months or years after the patient was injected?

The current prognosis for a COVID-19 vaccine to become available is "12-18 months" and a big part of the reason for such a long timeline is the fact that scientists want to ensure that the vaccine is ...
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What is meant by “vaccine efficacy?” [duplicate]

As a lot of people are aware, vaccines produced by different pharmaceutical companies have different “efficacy rates”:For example, this chart from the BBC which shows different rates of how effective ...

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