Questions tagged [terminology]

This tag should be used for questions concerning meaning and usage of words as applied in medical science.

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8
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2answers
150k views

What is the difference between cal and Kcal?

When I started working out, I came across these two terms that are used interchangeably. On edible products energy is written in terms of Kcal While when running on a treadmill we lose calories. ...
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1answer
2k views

What does "prognostic significance" mean exactly?

I am trying to more fully understand a pathologist report and do not know what "Prognostic Significance" means. Example... Estrogen Receptor Result: 80% positive Prognostic Significance: Favorable ...
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1answer
183 views

Can someone explain these cancer names?

I am looking at the death certificate of a relative, and I do not understand these names. Colon Carcinoma due to or as a consequence of Abdominal Carcinomatosis due to or as a consequence of ...
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1answer
39 views

Disease and Conditions

What is the medical definition that determines when something is a disease or a condition? Some definitions in medical terminology say that for example asthma is a chronic disease while some other ...
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683 views

Is lipaemia the same as hyperlipidemia?

I'm translating a Russian text and one of the sentences goes like this: Среди сывороток были образцы с гемолизом и липемией. The serum samples contained samples with hemolysis and lipaemia. I ...
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3answers
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What's the difference between etiology, pathogenesis, pathology, pathophysiology and epidemiology?

Most of my searches either end up explaining any of the above words in terms of the other four, or explaining the concept in simple words in such a way that makes it difficult to see the difference ...
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1answer
2k views

What is the word for the dead skin on the upper layer of a healed wound?

I aggressively cleaned my ear canal with my finger and the canal got scratched. After several weeks elapsed, it got naturally healed but I cannot hear clearly probably because of the dead skin left ...
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1answer
195 views

Is adrenaline a coctail of hormones, rather than one hormone?

Although it has been called the "Fight or Flight Hormone" adrenaline can be better described as 'Do it NOW!!! hormones." First things first, notice the 's.' Adrenaline isn't just one thing, but a ...
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1answer
32k views

What does "2/2" mean in a patient note?

I am reading a few patient notes and see 2/2 used several times, e.g.: Unclear if 2/2 to aspiration Recurrent UTIs and hosp. for urosepsis - thought 2/2 to chronic indwelling Foley catheter ...
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147 views

Epidemic and outbreak of Disease

What are the differences between an epidemic and an outbreak? Both words mean unexpected or unusual occurrence of the disease. Can someone explain the difference between them?
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1answer
57 views

Isn't "epithelial carcinoma" a tautological term? Are there non-epithelial carcinomas?

From "Bevacizumab combined with platinum–taxane chemotherapy as first-line treatment for advanced ovarian cancer: a prospective observational study of safety and efficacy in Japanese patients (...
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1answer
2k views

What does "Townsend quintile" mean?

Can anyone tell me what does "Townsend quintile" mean exactly? I am trying to use this cardiovascular risk assessment.
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1answer
609 views

Does "400 mg orally twice daily" mean "800 mg of drug per day"?

From a case report: In addition, the authors started 5-hydroxytryptophan titrated to 400 mg orally twice daily with concomittant carbidopa 37.5 mg orally four times a day, and he responded with ...
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1answer
3k views

What is the difference between inflammation and irritation?

I wonder what the difference is between inflammation and irritation, especially in the context of tendinopathies. My understanding based on MedlinePlus and Wikipedia is that inflammation is one kind ...
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1answer
77 views

What is the definition of Suicidal Ideation?

Many resources on depression and suicide use the term "suicidal ideation" as an important sign/symptom. Some sources (e.g. Krahn, Miller, and Bergstrom, Rapid Resolution of Intense Suicidal Ideation ...
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1answer
188 views

Was "patient zero" a concept used in epidemiology before 1980s HIV investigation?

This question may possibly be a fit for English Language or History stackexchange. Recently it was widely reported in the media about the results of new genetic testing of early HIV samples. The ...
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Meaning of "at baseline" in "Detection of antibodies at baseline in schizophrenia or major depression"

From The basis for folinic acid treatment in neuro-psychiatric disorders by Ramaekers et al., 2016, at the very end of the article: Because the presence of FRα antibodies can show significant serum ...
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1answer
57 views

What is the difference between vasoconstriction and contractility?

I was reading few articles that mention stress induced cortisol may contribute to vasoconstriction and contractility as if they are different. I did some searches on vasoconstriction and ...
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1answer
565 views

What is the name for the symptom of mishearing words?

There’s a really interesting symptom I remember hearing about, wherein the patient will fail to understand certain sounds correctly, in a repeatable fashion. For example, the patient could be ...
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1answer
271 views

Meaning of "Chest wall, Sp, Ps" in a description of tumor recurrence locations

From a clinical trial report: I think that Ps stands for parasternal (nodes) but what could Sp mean? I haven't found a mention of "Sp" in the literature by googling for about 20 minutes. P.S. ...
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1answer
65 views

How do you distinguish between "cure" and "recovery" in terms of medical terminology?

​‎I hear a lot of people using the words "cure" and "recovery" interchangeably. Are these two words interchangable in epidemiology? What's the difference between these two in terms of medical ...
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1answer
2k views

Difference between acute disease and chronic disease

An acute disease can sometimes recover naturally, but always with a cure. A chronic disease can't recover naturally and there is no cure. Is this the difference ?
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1answer
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I'm scared of certain celestial objects

I have a huge fear of photos of certain things in space. Here's a list: Nebula Galaxies Planets I am not scared of photos of stars (like the sun or distant stars), galaxy or star clusters (far away ...
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1answer
274 views

Who came up with the SARS-CoV-2 name?

I know that the WHO came up with the COVID-19 name, but I see big publisher (Springer) also using "SARS-CoV-2" seemingly to refer to the same thing. To be more technically correct, they say the ...
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1answer
115 views

Meaning of "acquisition in a single volume" (CT scanning)

From a research paper: (Richards, et al. 2018). A number of integrated strategies were used to achieve this consistently low dose, including; prospective ECG-gated acquisition, lowest possible tube ...
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1answer
186 views

What is the medical term for paralysis while sleeping?

What is the medical term for the natural paralysis that occurs while a person is in REM sleep? I look it up online, but I only find sleep paralysis which is a misnomer as that actually happens when ...
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1answer
1k views

What is the meaning of T2 Nx Mx in histopathological examination?

My dad's histopathological examination (HPE) of his rectal adenocarcinoma says T2 Nx Mx. Hence, it means that the lymph nodes were not assessed. However, as per my understanding, when the rectum/colon ...
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1answer
213 views

What does "DM at RLSB" mean?

I read "DM at RLSB" in a note from the medical personnel on a patient in the ICU. I know that DM typically stands for diabetes mellitus, and that RLSB typically stands for right lower sternal border, ...
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1answer
190 views

Abnormal shrinkage of the eyeball

Is there a condition which describes an abnormal shrinkage of the eyeball? That is, a counterpart to buphthalmos (an abnormal enlargement of the eyeball).
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1answer
631 views

Is hydrothorax considered as edema?

In _Robbins Basic Pathology 9th ed., edema is defined as [E]dema is an accumulation of interstitial fluid within tissues. Extravascular fluid can also collect in body cavities such as the ...
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63 views

What is sleep pressure?

What is sleep pressure? I was reading an article on melatonin, and one of the commenters said something about 'sleep pressure'. I did a web search to see what it was, but web searches don't often ...
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What are the food behaviors of anorexic patients?

I'm a medical student reading a book about nutrition and Metabolism. In the description of Anorexia nervosa patients the writer states that She has a preoccupation with, and often a considerable ...
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Fear of planets

When I was in preschool, I saw a 3D space adventure movie and almost cried. I don't know why but I get so scared when I see a planet. They are just very creepy to me. Even looking at a planet in a ...
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How do I specify a particular side of a finger?

I'm trying to indicate which side of a finger an injury has occurred (e.g., a cut). Depending on orientation of the hand left/right / sinister/dexter seems ambiguous. I look at my palms it's one way, ...
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1answer
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Is the abbreviation"r/o" on a test report used in the declarative or imperative sense?

I read something similar to this on the radiologist's report for a chest/abdominal CT scan with contrast, in a section headed "NARRATIVE" and a sub-section headed "HISTORY." This is the only content ...
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1answer
569 views

What is "recognized clinically"? Is there any special meaning in the word "clinically" here?

Quote: Many patients with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) experience long delays between their first symptom and initial diagnosis of AATD and require many encounters with healthcare providers ...
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1answer
48 views

What is the name of term for series of studies for the same patient?

If we have a series of assessment of lesion for some patient, how is it called in English? Looks like the study term is used for every single assessment(visit). How the whole series is called?
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1answer
94 views

What is the difference between lifetime incidence and cumulative lifetime incidence?

I read on https://lermagazine.com/article/achilles-experts-ponder-effects-of-heel-elevation: In athletes, Achilles tendinopathy has a prevalence of 19% and a cumulative lifetime incidence of 24%. ...
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1answer
130 views

Terminology for vaccinating with multiple vaccines?

If one were to be "fully vaccinated" with 2 doses of the Pfizer for COVID19 and then six months later vaccinate with the Moderna version: What is the word or phrase to indicate such a ...
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1answer
183 views

Is Coronavirus (Covid-19) considered a pandemic?

It is my understanding that "epidemic" is an abnormally high amount of cases than expected. "Pandemic" refers to a epidemic that crosses continents (Please correct my understanding if it is wrong). ...
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1answer
202 views

Colorectal examinations

This question was sparked by this discussion about the sigmoid and rectum. When looking at the colorectal medical examination techniques, for want of a better term, there are the sopical examinations (...
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1answer
2k views

Are "data cut off" and "data lock" the same thing in a clinical trial?

Quotes from a clinical trial report (JGOG3022 trial): Follow-up was terminated in February 2017 and data were locked in October 2017. Of the 346 patients enrolled, ineligible patients and patients ...
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1answer
131 views

MR scanner versus MRI scanner

To designate a device that performs magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is the proper term MR scanner or MRI scanner?
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1answer
89 views

What is aminorachia?

From Folinic acid responsive seizures: a new syndrome? (1995): This infant girl seized within 6h of birth. Seizures were ameliorated with high-dose multiple anticonvulsant therapy. CT scan, urine ...
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1answer
69 views

What is the purpose of the "observation cohort" in a clinical trial?

Quote from a clinical trial report (JGOG3022 trial): Patients who were scheduled to receive bevacizumab concomitantly with platinum-based combination chemotherapy after PDS or IDS were included in ...
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1answer
230 views

What is the process called, when a doctor tries to figure out what is wrong with you?

I know that anamnesis is the process of asking potentially relevant questions for building a medical history of a patient. I think this involves: Getting to know past illnesses of the patient Getting ...
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1answer
557 views

What is the difference between “comorbidity” and “multimorbidity”?

I am doing a search on how the number of conditions can cause disease burden. I came across the terms comorbidity and multimorbidty in my search and I wanted to know the difference between the two. ...
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2answers
57 views

What would you call the following type of injury?

Having fallen onto your hands and knees on asphalt, the top layer of skin is gone from your wrists, and you can see tiny amounts of blood that are not coming out of anywhere in particular (perhaps the ...
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0answers
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Lack of clarity about terms for average glucose in diabetes research literature (MBG, MPG, and AG)

The meaning of “mean plasma glucose (MPG)” is unambiguous, but I’m having an incredibly difficult time making sense of the way the term “mean blood glucose (MBG)” is used in medical research ...
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English-language term for "productive vasculitis"

I'm translating a Russian text that gives a description of necropsy results. It mentions "productive vasculitis": Сосуды вокруг участка гранулематозного воспаления с признаками продуктивного ...