Questions tagged [pathophysiology]

The biochemical, molecular, and physiologic mechanisms that cause disease.

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Why the FDA-approved drug label for sofosbuvir mentions "Without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis" as indication?

SOVALDI is a hepatitis C virus (HCV) nucleotide analog NS5B polymerase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of: - Adult patients with genotype 1, 2, 3 or 4 chronic hepatitis C virus (...
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What kind of inflammation is caused by diabetes?

Quote from the notice for diabetics about COVID: Diabetes causes inflammation in the body and you have a harder time fighting off an infection like the virus that causes COVID-19 What does it mean &...
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Why do herpes virus infections (apart from chicken pox) resolve without dermatological sequelae?

OK, first, needed research and a bunch of other articles. I've seen hundreds of cases of recurrent HV infections (labialis, zoster, etc.) uncomplicated by secondary infection, some of which looked ...
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1 answer
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Pathophysiology of bronchiolitis vs. bronchitis

In most medical textbooks, bronchitis is said to be an inflammation of both bronchi and bronchioles, and to affect mostly adults. On the other hand, bronchiolitis is said to be a specific inflammation ...
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Are there diseases which are contagious but can also arise simultaneously in an individual? [closed]

Diseases like most cancers are known to be not contagious; they arise `from within'. On the other hand, diseases like the flu are known to be contagious. Are there also diseases which fit in both ...
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Why nephrotic syndrome does not present with haematuria?

As we know that nephrotic syndrome is characteristically present with proteinuria and on the other hand haematuria is seen in nephritic syndrome. Defect/loss of podocytes in nephrotic syndrome leads ...
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1 answer
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What is the difference between lipohyalinosis and microatheroma?

Lacunar strokes (small-vessel subcortical strokes) are commonly caused by "lipohyalinosis" or "microatheroma"(1). Both mechanisms appear to be related to hypertension and diabetes, ...
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Why proximal muscle weakness improves in Lambert- Eaton syndrome with isometric contraction?

Lambert Eaton has antibodies to presynaptic calcium VGC(voltage gated channel). So how does doing an isometric (or any other type of contraction) will improve weakness, what will be pathophysiology? ...
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What's the resson the skin looks bluish when having cyanosis?

What's the reason the skin looks blue when having cyanosis? What's the relationship between lack of oxygen of the bluish appearance?
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Reason for different blood glucose values in left and right hand

Almost everytime I measure the blood glucose levels in both right and left hands there's always a difference of 10-20mg/dL. When I first noticed this, I tried using on different individuals, but for ...
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What happens to ICF in primary aldosteronism?

There is contradictory information in my two textbooks, As per Kaplan Physiology 2018, There is gain of isotonic fluid, because aldosteronism cause Na+ retention and water follow, so osmolality ...
1 vote
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Atlas of pathology / morbid anatomy. Is there any?

Is there any atlas which have Human's fresh pathological gross specimen with their segmental cut-sections of different tissues? Why fresh! the reason is after embalming any tissues, organs changes ...
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Why oligohydramnios leads to hypoplasia of lung?

What I found for the question is that due to - Oligohydramnios reduces the intrathoracic cavity size, thus disrupting fetal lung growth and leading to pulmonary hypoplasia. decreased fetal breathing ...
9 votes
1 answer
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Does skeletal muscle injury cause hypertrophy or atrophy?

In the following diagram from the Love and Bailey textbook I see that injury causes a decrease in hypertrophy due to a decrease in the expression of IGF-1. Here Love and Bailey consider a skeletal ...
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English-language term for "productive vasculitis"

I'm translating a Russian text that gives a description of necropsy results. It mentions "productive vasculitis": Сосуды вокруг участка гранулематозного воспаления с признаками продуктивного ...
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Best books for understanding pathophysiology

Please recommend some books on advanced pathophysiology that are accurate and simple.
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Is vitamin D a very passive xenogenic factor to major depressive disorder?

Are the biosynthesis, utilisation and catabolism systems of vitamin D, especially the pathways of neural cells' vitamin D response, altered by the pathophysiological condition of major depressive ...
2 votes
1 answer
267 views

Afterload during Cardiac failure?

So one of the clinical signs of Cardiac insufficiency is a low blood pressure, and to treat cardiac insufficiency we try to decrease the Afterload. what I don't get is that the Afterload is defined as ...
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Do people from sunnier parts of the world show accelerated aging?

A lot of medical evidence seems to point to there being a link between sun exposure and skin aging. Would this mean that on average, a 30-year-old from Arizona would have more wrinkles and uneven skin ...
0 votes
1 answer
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Is it right to say that any syncope is a result of low perfusion to brain?

Is it right to say that always syncope is a result of low perfusion to brain, or low blood pressure? (I know that there are a lot of secondary reasons such as vassovagal or cardiac issues, but if I ...
4 votes
1 answer
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Advanced lung cancer spreading areas

Lung cancer is one of the most frequent causes of cancer in the world (1). According to Cancer Research Uk (2), advanced stages of lung cancer can spread to other parts of the body. The most ...
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What mechanisms of action plausibly explain the correlation between SIBO and a CRC? [closed]

Doctors who treat gut conditions have found that Small Intestinal Bacteria Overgrowth (SIBO) and Candida-Related-Complexes (CRC) often occur in the same people, but as far as I am aware, which, if ...
4 votes
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Mechanisms that causes prominent veins during physical exercise

I have just read this article about why veins become prominent while exercising: Why do veins pop out when exercising, and is that good or bad? I have some questions about this: The article ...
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Food diary as diagnostic aid

If I was interested in cataloguing eating habits for the purpose of shedding light on what seems to be a bowel disorder or dysfunction caused primarily, but not exclusively, by ingested food (or the ...
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Will reading in dim light damage my eyes?

People keep saying that it is important to have adequate light when reading, because reading in dim light will damage your eyes. Is this true and why?
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40 y/o woman admitted with ARDS but normal values

Second year medical student asking: A 40 year old woman is admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to a life threatening case of pneumonia. Her respiratory values are as ...
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8 votes
3 answers
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What's the difference between etiology, pathogenesis, pathology, pathophysiology and epidemiology?

Most of my searches either end up explaining any of the above words in terms of the other four, or explaining the concept in simple words in such a way that makes it difficult to see the difference ...
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Is HIV the cause of AIDS?

That HIV causes AIDS always seemed like an obvious fact to me, this seemed to be the widely accepted opinion. But just now I found the article "Questioning the HIV-AIDS hypothesis: 30 years of dissent"...
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