Questions tagged [medications]

Questions related to intake, use, safety, side effects, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drugs, prodrugs and medication.

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Why do barbituates cause mydriasis? [closed]

Can anyone explain why barbiturates cause dilated pupils? I am struggling to come up with a mechanism that explains this effect. Is it related to GABA?
-4 votes
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How to cure my paraphilia? [closed]

I have a sexual problem, I am 28 years old divorced, ever since I was 9 years old kid, I am sexually atrracted to men laying on their back, that's because I played the game WWF in your house for ps1 I ...
2 votes
2 answers
993 views

Why is Toradol no longer available in the US?

A few years ago I was given Toradol for kidney stone pain. It was magical. My friend just had a kidney stone and was given morphine, then Dilaudid. Curious about the differences, I went googling, only ...
13 votes
2 answers
1k views

Splitting pills in half

Sometimes a physician will instruct the patient to reduce the dosage of a prescription medication by 50%. Obviously, if the tablet has an enteric coating, or is in a special encapsulation (such as ...
2 votes
1 answer
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How can Spinraza be effective on peripheral motor neurons outside of the spinal cord if it cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier?

I have SMA type 3. I had four intrathecal Nusinersen injections but I had no noticable improvement. I have doubts about its effectiveness outside of spinal cord, because we know that Spinraza can not ...
1 vote
0 answers
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Isotretinoin Contraindications [closed]

Why is Isotretinoin (Accutane) contraindicated in migraine patients? I’ve seen many doctors saying that you should not take isotretinoin if you have a migraine, is there a reason behind it?
1 vote
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819 views

Why do some medications have HCl?

I have seen a lot of medications including a few that I take for certain situations. 1 of the medications that I occasionally take is Benadryl. The main component of this is Diphenhydramine HCl. I ...
3 votes
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Does treatment with one triazole give resistance to all other triazoles?

Let's say a patient is treated with a triazole (e.g. Itraconazole) for an oral thrush infection and the fungus acquires resistance to it, then is that resistance against other triazoles too (e.g. ...
2 votes
1 answer
96 views

How to estimate equivalent doses of similar medicines with different route of administration?

I am trying to compare the two medications used as rescue medications for seizures 5mg Rectal Diazepam 2.5mg Buccal Midazolam (Buccolam) I am aware that Midazolam is considered to be more potent than ...
1 vote
1 answer
81 views

Would an injection into the neck be useful for quick application of a drug?

This might be the wrong place to ask, but I'm working on a story where the main character has a chronic condition that is usually managed by medication. However, on the off chance they run out of ...
1 vote
2 answers
152 views

Does skin picking cause skin cancer?

I was a skin picker (Dermatillomaniac) since several years ago. Of course I pick only the skin of my hand thumbs. I wish to quit it and I wish to know about two things here: Does chronic skin picking ...
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Can zyprexa cause thinning of brain cortex

Aka olanzapine. It’s a commonly prescribed anti psychotic, I’ve seen written in a couple of places that it thins brain cortex ……..
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1 answer
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What is the average optimal time interval before or after a meal when medicines should be taken?

Many medicines and supplements specify that they should be taken either before of after a meal—and I know that this means some time must pass, not gulping the med immediately next to the meal. However,...
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How to handle inverse agonism when calculating bias?

Is there a standard way to compare an inverse agonist to an agonist in a bias calculation? The problem is that inverse agonists have negative efficacy, so you can't take the log to calculate RA... ...
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33 views

Vitamin B3 and staph

In 2015, researchers found that vitamin B3 might help aid in fighting staph bacteria. Has there been any progress on this since then?
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1 answer
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Are treatments for (hyper/hypo)parathyroidism mutually exclusive from treatmeants to (hyper/hypo)calcemia?

Summarized in the table below the drugs that were listed in my professor's lecture slides for the treatment of Hyperparathyroidism (first column) and hypoparathyroidism (second column) Are treatments ...
10 votes
1 answer
866 views

Why would it be necessary to take a brand name medication if a generic drug is available?

Many prescription pads have a way for the doctor to indicate if a brand name medication must be dispensed instead of the generic version (e.g. a line where they can write something like "brand ...
2 votes
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Why can't Asian flush be treated in a similar way to lactose intolerance?

I have been reading about the Asian flush, which is caused by a histamine reaction to a toxic byproduct of alcohol metabolism, acetaldehyde. Some individuals are able to suppress the histamine ...
2 votes
0 answers
76 views

Are there medications that treat premature ejaculation without interfering in serotonin levels?

The widespread medications that are being used to treat premature ejaculation (PE) are kind of antidepressants called SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors). But the problem with this kind of ...
3 votes
1 answer
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Analgesics are drugs which relieve pain. Are there other drugs which do the opposite -- make you more sensitive to pain?

I am curious. Are there durgs which do the opposite of analgesics? That is, make you more sensitive to pain, but don't cause pain themselves? If so, what is this class of drugs called? What is the ...
1 vote
0 answers
12 views

IPSD, IISD, MPP1+ and MSI scores [closed]

First of all, sorry if this is not the correct Stack. I am translating a clinical protocol for an antibody that could be used against certain types of cancer. I found the following and I have no idea ...
1 vote
1 answer
811 views

Why is there HBr in dextromethorphan HBr?

I was reading off the back label of a Nyquil bottle and I realized instead of dextromethorphan, it said dextromethorphan HBr. I also realized that instead of phenylephrine, it said phenylephrine HCl. ...
5 votes
1 answer
84 views

Why do calcium channel blockers have an adverse effect of edema but Beta Blockers do not cause edema as a side effect?

My pharmacology professor glossed over the mechanism that causes edema besides briefly discussing after/preload. If Calcium channel blockers and beta blockers both are negative ionotropes then why isn'...
5 votes
1 answer
264 views

Why does anybody still prescribe Citalopram with Escitalopram available (apart from price)?

As far as I could find Escitalopram is superior in every way, except for the US price (which might no longer even be the case). So why is the former still widely used worldwide? Did I miss anything? ...
4 votes
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57 views

Do topical anti-inflamatory preparations work topically?

There are topical anti-inflamatory preparations where the advertising at least implies that they work topically, in that the effect will be more localised by the use of a topical preparation than if ...
2 votes
1 answer
6k views

In what order should ointment and lotion be applied?

I apply both moisturizing cream and a medicinal ointment/lotion on some recovering injuries. The skin is unbroken, and the medicinal lotion is primarily for the entry point of a titanium rod in my ...
2 votes
2 answers
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Newer drugs useful for acute heart failure

Diuretics (drugs which increase urine output), morphine and oxygen are often used to treat patients who have to come to emergency ward with acute heart failure. But what are newer drugs useful for ...
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1 answer
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Lack of studies on small doses of chlorine dioxide as treatment for diseases

While ingesting high doses of chlorine dioxide are toxic to humans, this is not the case for smaller doses. Ingesting, for example, 30 mg per day for a few days would probably not result in serious ...
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Could some common allergies be treated medicinally without antihistamins/steroids/epinephrine and if so how?

A common allergy such as house dust-mite allergy or a food allergy can be treated with antihistamines, steroids and epinephrine. I understand that there are Mast cell stabilizers and Anti-leuko-...
5 votes
1 answer
126 views

Are generics tested for side effects?

I have been reading about generics vs brand-name drugs. I've learned that generics go through extensive testing for bioequivalence (both rate of absorption and total absorption of the active ...
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How do blood substitute increase the risk of stroke?

When describing blood substitute's (BS's) made of perfluorocarbons use in clinical trials, one of the most commonly described side effected in the increase risk of stroke in the area were the PFC is ...
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39 views

Definition of fasted state

Is there a general definition what consists a fasted state? The medical literature I have read so far uses the term ambiguously, i.e. from overnight abstinence to 2h of no food intake. Is there a ...
1 vote
1 answer
53 views

Is generic name a synonym for active ingredient?

What is the difference between active ingredient and generic name? Is generic name always equal to the active ingredients or are these sometimes different? For example, Benadryl has a generic name, ...
9 votes
3 answers
279 views

What can the variability of strength be between different brands of supposedly identical medications?

I remember reading that medications are within allowable specs if they contain +/- 30% of the labelled strength. I can't find the source of that information in order to check its validity. If that is ...
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Why have we obtained significantly different results for moisture content on two different brands of moisture analyzers?

Our pharmaceutical laboratory has two moisture analyzers in use; one is Shimadzu MOC3u (MC-A), and the other is Mettler-Toledo HC103 (MC-B). A sample from the same batch was put on each instrument to ...
2 votes
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Where can I find a list (even if only partial) of excipients that cause a medication to be indivisible?

Certain tablet formulations should not be divided or halved because the tablets are film-coated for low pH resistance (i.e. for safe passage in the stomach) or because the active ingredient is not ...
4 votes
1 answer
103 views

Would slight shifting of administration times of Paxlovid impact its efficacy?

Paxlovid (nirmatrelvir/ritonavir) is an oral medication indicated for patients recently diagnosed with COVID-19 and who are at high risk of deterioration. This drug received an emergency use ...
7 votes
1 answer
232 views

How can I learn to swallow pills without gagging?

Many people have difficulty swallowing pills or even find themselves unable to do so. While some medications are available in other forms, many are not. Is it possible to learn how to swallow pills? ...
2 votes
1 answer
92 views

To what extent does filling more prescriptions increase the number of medication errors?

https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2017/05/10/skin-melts-off-medication-error/315930001/ (mirror) says: According to the Food and Drug Administration, medication errors jumped from 16,...
3 votes
1 answer
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Monotherapy of multiple drugs or combination therapy - Beginner 101

Let's say that patient A is taking drugs like as shown below |---atenolol-----esmolol----nebivolol---------------------| |---s------e-----s-----e----s-------e---------------------| here s and e ...
2 votes
1 answer
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Are there any randomized clinical trials being conducted on TMPRSS2 inhibitors for Covid-19 treatment?

In a recent paper on why hydroxychloroquine doesn't really work against Covid-19, it's been demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 is much better at taking advantage of TMPRSS2 at the cell membrane surface, so ...
2 votes
1 answer
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Why do so many OTC drugs have one-size-fits-all dosing instructions?

Every over-the-counter medication I've seen in recent memory (in the USA) has had instructions along the lines of, "Adults and children 12 years and older: 1 pill every 4 hours, 12 and under: ...
2 votes
0 answers
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Does a Doctor exist that is able to encapsulate triaging differing specialities? [closed]

My girlfriend has multiple health issues: ASD ADHD BPD Type 1 Diabetes Wolf Parkinsons Disease Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibromyalgia Perferatted Valve Reynauds Disease The issue is each one ...
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1 answer
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Has there been any medical studies as to whether drinking a 'Hot Toddy' can help to ward off or to help heal someone who has COVID-19? [closed]

I am curious to know if there has been any medical studies that have been conducted to ascertain if drinking a 'Hot Toddy' every day will decrease the odds of someone being infected by the COVID-19 ...
8 votes
1 answer
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Why are Drugs.com side-effect incidence rates so different from manufacturer/FDA reports?

Entries at Drugs.com have a section on "Side Effects... For Healthcare Professionals" which present percentages for incidence rates of side effects. However, I've found that the rates ...
0 votes
1 answer
60 views

H1-antihistamines classified according to pharmacology?

I've been researching H1-antihistamines for personal reasons. And I'm trying to find out if H1-antihistamines are sorted based on pharmacology. I understand that H1-antihistamines have up to three ...
5 votes
2 answers
664 views

Ritalin/Concerta/Methylphenidate is an amphetamine?

FIDE (the governing body of international chess competition) says here: The most relevant banned substances for chess are: • Amphetamines – e.g. Adderall, Ritalin (...) Image: I think either ...
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What are the basic reasons for normogonadotropic hypogonadism?

I'm can't fine the full known scope of reasons of male normogonadotropic hypogonadism. From this article I see the two basic reasons: Gonadal dysgenesis variants (residually functioning ovarian ...
10 votes
1 answer
489 views

Antidepressant response post MAOI tachyphylaxis

In 'Listening to Prozac' (Pg. 305) Kramer notes that once monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) poop-out, depressed patients are often unresponsive to subsequent pharmacological interventions (and in ...
2 votes
0 answers
573 views

How could Lyrica (pregabalin) cause hallucinations?

I've heard of this happening on rare occasion, but I cannot figure out a sensible mechanism. I have some limited understanding of neurology and the function of GABA, and I know that ethanol (a GABA ...

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