Questions tagged [immune-system]

The group of cellular and molecular processes that the body uses to fight bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. Autoimmune and inflammatory disease are caused by malfunctioning of this system and should also be tagged with the disease name.

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Does intermittent fasting induce autophagic cell death?

https://www.cancertherapyadvisor.com/home/tools/fact-sheets/intermittent-fasting-and-cancer/ In vitro and in vivo animal studies suggest that PF inactivates pro-proliferative pathways, while ...
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Is there any data on herbal supplements interfering with the efficacy of vaccination?

Here's an excerpt from a paper published in "Journal of Inflammation Research" by Dove Press for a popular and controversial herbal supplement from India: Coronil effectively inhibited the ...
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What are the effects of repeated sub-infective doses of coronavirus?

There are experimental records and clinical observations showing that exposure to sub-infective doses of some pathogens can result in enhanced immunity to infection when exposed to an infective dose ...
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Can fasting destroy our adaptive immune system?

Fasting for 72 hours been shown to lead to white blood cell regeneration (1). The cells basically die after several days, and are created again from stem cells upon feeding. This article describes how ...
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Is there a spread of immunity agains viruses due to failed infections?

As an interested layperson (having small kids) I was told and read that some viruses are extremely infectious. E.g., very few virus particles of Norovirus (some say less than five) can cause an ...
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Are there probiotics for upper respiratory tract tissue?

If the lungs can be subject to bacterial infection, why do there not exist beneficial probiotics that live in lung tissue to combat "bad" bacteria proliferation?
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Would being infected with every kind of cold virus strain at once be a good immunization or dangerous?

I know colds come from around 200 different kinds of viruses. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_cold But would it be worth the risk to be purposefully infected with every type of strain that ...
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If I'm suspecting someone I know has an exceptionally good immune system - can this be tested somehow?

Please note this is NOT a personal medical consultation. If I have reason to think that someone I know has an immune system that is exceptionally good (they are very rarely sick, almost never get ...
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Is there an immune deficiency disorder that fits this description?

I've been trying to do some research for a writing project, but I need some advice to help me identify what specific things I should be researching, because "immune deficiency" in general brings up a ...
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Can allergies "generalize" to other substances present during an allergic reaction?

I've heard some claims that allergic reactions to one substance can "generalize" to other substances present at the same time. For example: A person is allergic to lobster, but not to clams. The ...
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Is it considered eosinophilia if the total eosinophil count is normal but the eosinophil percentage is high?

If the total eosinophil count is normal but the eosinophil percentage is high, is it considered eosinophilia, or is it merely grounds for a rerun of the test? In a paper by Kovalski and Weller (2016), ...
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Do covid vaccines increase the risk of antibody-dependent enhancement?

A QAnon video which takes Nobel Prize winner Luc Montagnier's suspect claims about covid vaccination and multiplies them beyond recognition states that mass vaccination will lead to mass ADE, and that ...
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Why do some vaccines cause flu-like symptoms? Why does this seem to be more severe in mRNA vaccines?

Flu like symptoms are noted as possible reactions on nearly every vaccine I've had since adolescence, but I've never actually seen these symptoms in myself or anyone, until now? I don't doubt that ...
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What is the historical or scientific basis for concern about COVID vaccines and pregnant women and their babies?

There's a lot of talk about whether COVID vaccines are safe for pregnant women and their fetuses. Current guidelines, while mentioning that there's little data, suggest that they are safe. However, I'...
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How durable is a human immunity to an adenovirus (at least specific serotypes)?

There are few SARS-Cov-2 vaccines that use adenovirus vectors as vehicles (human's Ad5, Ad26, chimps' ChAdOx1, probably something else). A side effect of such a vaccine is that an inoculated organism ...
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Which HPV types are detectable by the immune system to remove it from body?

Some resources (like WHO) says that HPV can be cleared by the immune system as the following. WHO There are many types of HPV, and many do not cause problems. HPV infections usually clear up without ...
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Does obesity predispose to less effective vaccine response in general?

From a (2019) review on host susceptibility to influenza A virus (IAV): Obesity was identified as a risk factor for IAV infection over a decade ago and confirmed during the swine flu pandemic [30, 31]...
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Why do we need booster shots, for some viruses but not the others?

When being vaccinated we are given viruses that have been killed or made 'not working' in some other way. Then we get B and T cells that can 'kill' it. For example, for polio, memory B and T cells ...
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Should everyone take the ebola vaccine to achieve global herd immunity?

Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses. 1 Should everyone in the ...
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Is PCV13 effective if the suspension is not shaken prior to administration?

PCV13, like other vaccines which are suspensions, should be shaken vigorously to obtain a homogenous, white suspension in the vaccine container immediately prior to use. If this is not done and the ...
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Are allergies due to memory T cells for benign antigens?

If I understand correctly, the immune system reacts to infections by priming virgin helper T cells for the particular antigens exposed on the surface of the invader, leaving some memory T cells ...
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Can the body delay infections/sickness for important reasons?

Background of the question: I worked on a very important project which was also critical for the firm and would have affected the employment permanently if it failed. During that time several ...
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How does interferon beta 1-A help patients with multiple sclerosis?

I know that azathioprine weakens the immune system by reducing white blood cell count. I've read that interferons boost the immune system against viruses. They seem to have different functions, but ...
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How does donepezil impact the immune system?

Is it immunosuppressive? If so, to what extent? What are the mechanisms for this effect?
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APC cells - autoreactivity

How can APC cells become autoreactiv against own antigens if they only have PRR as recognition complexes - and are not under central/peripheral immune tolerance?
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Do I need to get re-immunized for immunities received prior to contracting measles?

One study has suggested that measles can lead to "immune memory loss", meaning immunities gained prior to measles infection can be lost. I had measles at age six. According to the (current) CDC ...
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how does the immune system identify allergens? application: varenicline and lobeline

I'm wondering if we know how the immune system identifies allergens. My biochemistry knowledge is basic so I apologize if I use concepts incorrectly! Specifically, I want to know about the likelihood ...
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What caused J&J's Procrit to be so deadly?

I just finished reading Blood Medicine and I'm wondering, what made Procrit/epogen so deadly, if it was from natural sources? Was it an immune reaction?
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has your body killed a cold virus before you experience any symptoms?

A friend tells me that by the time you feel the first symptoms of a cold (runny nose, sore throat, whatever the first symptoms are), your immune system has actually already killed the virus, and the ...
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Is the common cold deadly to a suppressed immune system?

If you were taking an immune system suppressant such as Prograf (Tacrolimus) for a long period of time would a virus like the common cold linger in the body and cause infection over time and possibly ...
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What is the minimum exposure to a virus to acheive immunization?

Is it possible to gain immunity against a virus if the exposure to the virus is not large enough to cause any clinical symptoms? And if so, would the immunity achieved without symptoms be as strong as ...
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Can applying pressure to joints provide some health benefits?

My question goes beyond the obvious wisdom of not being sedentary. I was told by someone, with a fair amount of medical training, of the benefits of applying pressure to the joints and connective ...
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Is there a benefit to taking whey protein to increase glutathione level compared to the body's natural production?

Glutathione is a strong antioxidant needed for many processes in the body. High levels of glutathione have been linked to strong immune systems, heavy metals elimination, lower inflammation, lower ...
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What is the current evidence on treating back injury?

I've been researching this topic for a while and found many contradictory results all over the place. I've left the more general "back pain" because I kind of get the same inconclusive ...
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booster does of pfizer if someone was vaccinated with sinopharm

I am curious if there is established practice of using pfizer as booster if person was vaccinated with sinopharm. One example I think is here which says it is possible https://www.timeoutdubai.com/...
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Do immune system challenges affect age related immune response decline?

Load bearing exercise is known to help maintain strong bones as we age. Physical exercise prevents muscle atrophy and promotes overall body and organ health. It is also known that cognitive ...
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Covid-19 and Original Antigenic Sin

My understanding of original antigenic sin, which I admit is minimal, is that with some pathogens, your immune system gets too focused on one variant and thus is wholly unprepared to deal with a ...
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Are coronavirus-like spikes only seen in viruses?

Are there any natural proteins or cells (or anything) made by the human body with spikes like those of Covid-19? I know that there have been no serious side effects reported from the Covid-19 vaccine, ...
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What protection does T-cell immunity confer for Covid?

This preprint, which was just released today, says that while some of the Covid-19 variants evade antibody immunity, they do not evade T-cell immunity. It says that this is true both of T-cell ...
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Effects of anti-Rh(D) antibodies on the fetus

Rh disease is caused by the irruption in the fetal circulation of anti-Rh(D) antibodies. This only happens when there has been a prior exposure of the mother to Rh+ RBC. To prevent Rh sensitization ...
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Can IVIG treatment increase risk of infections?

Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIG) are often used to treat patients with impaired antibody production or autoimmune conditions[1]. However, according to this paper[2], it can also inhibit antibody ...
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Is inoculation against covid-19 an option?

Covid-19 can cause serious illness or death, and it can take survivors a very long time to recover, and even then it is unsure if recovery will be complete. The policies put in place to curb the ...
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How does lifetime immunity work?

Why do we get a lifetime immunity against particular diseases like smallpox ? Why don't we get immunity against all diseases we have already been through ?
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Is this explanation of coronavirus accurate?

I have seen the following post popping up on Facebook recently: 🧐🧐🧐 Feeling confused as to why Coronavirus is a bigger deal than Seasonal flu? Here it is in a nutshell. I hope this ...
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What's the primary body entrance + surface of infection for catching the flu?

I realize there are multiple ways, but if you tallied up all the people who caught the flu or a cold last year, what would be the majority... Entrance for infection: Mouth Nose Eyes Ears Skin Bio ...
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Would strenuous exercise make one more susceptible to ringworm?

A recent study debunks the generally-held belief that strenuous exercise suppresses the immunity system. Instead, immunity cells are said to migrate to internal organs that need them most after ...
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Cancer treatment through regulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells

There are many ongoing clinical trials that leverage the power of the immune system to recognize tumor cells such as CD47 and PDL1/PD1, and even engineered T cells! I ran across an immune cell type ...
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Will treating minor infections with medication slow down or prevent anti body generation?

My 2 yo son gets sick fairly often, as expected for his age. Since his immune system has yet to build antibodies against all the usual infections. I wonder if medicating minor infections is doing more ...
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Does being overly attentive to hygiene impair your immune system?

Like a lot of Japanese girls, I'm a bit obsessed with personal hygiene. Sometimes I get up 2AM to have a shower... after already having one before going to sleep, because something just doesn't feel "...
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Can amphetamines suppress reactivity to scratch testing (for immunotherapy)?

My understanding's that amphetamines are immunosuppressive... Theoretically, couldn't these drugs result in false negatives?