Questions tagged [immune-system]

The group of cellular and molecular processes that the body uses to fight bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. Autoimmune and inflammatory disease are caused by malfunctioning of this system and should also be tagged with the disease name.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
3 votes
1 answer
68 views

Why do we need booster shots, for some viruses but not the others?

When being vaccinated we are given viruses that have been killed or made 'not working' in some other way. Then we get B and T cells that can 'kill' it. For example, for polio, memory B and T cells ...
1 vote
1 answer
82 views

APC cells - autoreactivity [closed]

How can APC cells become autoreactiv against own antigens if they only have PRR as recognition complexes - and are not under central/peripheral immune tolerance?
2 votes
1 answer
63 views

Hyposecretion of cortisol lead to depressed immune system?

I understand that cortisol decreases both the number of white blood cells and the secretion of inflammatory chemical from tissues. So shouldn't a under(hypo) secretion of cortisol, lead to an ...
3 votes
1 answer
62 views

How does interferon beta 1-A help patients with multiple sclerosis?

I know that azathioprine weakens the immune system by reducing white blood cell count. I've read that interferons boost the immune system against viruses. They seem to have different functions, but ...
1 vote
0 answers
15 views

What would happen if non-cellular immune responses didn’t happen? [closed]

First things first, I’m not from a medical background, so apologies for the slightly vague question and any other poor wording throughout. I’ve recently caught a nasty cold, and as such I’ve acquired ...
-5 votes
2 answers
148 views

How can vaccines be effective against respiratory viruses when it is the innate immune system that is the primary response to such pathogens?

I don't understand how vaccines can be thought to be effective against respiratory viruses. We have influenza "vaccines" and now the new mRNA vaccine against COVID-19. However, my ...
1 vote
0 answers
35 views

Are people who suffer from autoimmune diseases less likely to get cancer? [closed]

Autoimmune diseases are caused by one's own immune system doing too much. In such a case, will it have the positive side effect of more protection against actual disease such as cancer?
2 votes
0 answers
46 views

How durable is a human immunity to an adenovirus (at least specific serotypes)?

There are few SARS-Cov-2 vaccines that use adenovirus vectors as vehicles (human's Ad5, Ad26, chimps' ChAdOx1, probably something else). A side effect of such a vaccine is that an inoculated organism ...
2 votes
1 answer
93 views

Antibodies and Immune system

I was just educated by my physician about some details of the differences between the qualitative and the semi-quantitative COVID-19 antibody tests. I understand now that the result of the semi-...
6 votes
2 answers
4k views

What is the Fatality Rate of the Common Cold? [closed]

During COVID-19, we've heard many comparisons between SARS-CoV-2 and the Flu, especially in terms of the case fatality rate (CFR). Currently, the Flu is thought to be around 0.1%, and according to the ...
2 votes
2 answers
83 views

What is the current evidence on treating back injury?

I've been researching this topic for a while and found many contradictory results all over the place. I've left the more general "back pain" because I kind of get the same inconclusive ...
2 votes
0 answers
44 views

Using Pfizer as a booster dose if someone was vaccinated with Sinopharm: what is good practice? [closed]

I am curious if there is established practice of using Pfizer as a booster dose if a person was vaccinated with Sinopharm. One example I think is here which says it is possible https://www....
1 vote
1 answer
36 views

what is the mechanism through which TLR 7 agonist causes autoimmune disease?

TLR 7 agonist has been linked with development of autoimmune disease, namely lupus like disease. The question is, why does it happen? I think a mechanism of why it happens would also reveal answers to ...
2 votes
1 answer
35 views

What is the mechanism through which TLR 7/8 agonist is useful as an adjuvant in an inactivated vaccine?

My layman understanding is that a Toll like receptor (TLR) is an entity that detects foreign substances in the body and creates an alert about them and an appropriate response ensues. A TLR 7 and 8 ...
1 vote
1 answer
87 views

Vaccine death efficacy calculation and how it works

I am no medical expert, am just curious how vaccines work in general, especially in preventing severe illness and deaths. I have read articles, seen videos on youtube, and seen how efficacy is ...
3 votes
1 answer
99 views

Do facemasks and social distancing weaken the immune system because of reduced exposure to pathogens?

I am operating under the following premises: The immune system needs to be constantly trained by exposure to pathogens to remain effective. I remember having read that the reason why little children ...
6 votes
1 answer
135 views

How long does it take for the COVID-19 antibody to disappear?

I saw a news article says; 90 days after the infection with ncov19, several patients had no detectable antibodies in their bloodstream. This seems to be one of their evidence that immunity against ...
10 votes
1 answer
2k views

Can someone have an allergic reaction to a virus?

My understanding of allergies is that they are more or less immune responses to non-pathogenic substances. The definition on MedicineNet more or less agrees with this. While I don't have any known ...
0 votes
0 answers
38 views

Covid vaccine second dose side effects and immunity

Does experiencing side effects such as fever/headache/muscle ache after the second dose of vaccine mean that immune system is weak and catching covid would have been more dangerous in comparison to ...
0 votes
1 answer
76 views

what is risk of breakthrough infection with pfizer and delta?

There is varying information on this topic, does anybody know is there is any consensus on the rate of breakthrough infections with delta and pfizer vaccine? https://www.cnbc.com/2021/07/23/delta-...
3 votes
1 answer
157 views

Why is booster shot needed when mRNA vaccines can induce memory cells?

My understanding about mRNA Covid-19 vaccines and memory cell is that they do induce memory T cell response similar to natural infection, and thus provide long term protection via the memory cell ...
0 votes
0 answers
63 views

(How) does taking all available vaccines contribute to cross- and trained immunity?

Many countries have national vaccination campaigns that consists of vaccines against several different diseases. I expect that the choice of vaccines that are included in such programs is mainly ...
1 vote
0 answers
35 views

Do immune system challenges affect age related immune response decline?

Load bearing exercise is known to help maintain strong bones as we age. Physical exercise prevents muscle atrophy and promotes overall body and organ health. It is also known that cognitive ...
2 votes
0 answers
32 views

Is it considered eosinophilia if the total eosinophil count is normal but the eosinophil percentage is high?

If the total eosinophil count is normal but the eosinophil percentage is high, is it considered eosinophilia, or is it merely grounds for a rerun of the test? In a paper by Kovalski and Weller (2016), ...
2 votes
1 answer
61 views

Why do we need to get rid of fever, whilst most of medical textbooks say it is a defense reaction of immune system [closed]

Why is paracetamol prescribed in cases of every fever when fever actually helps the body and is in fact induced by the immune system? Shouldn't it be better to let the immune system do its job?
0 votes
0 answers
15 views

Relationship between Th1 and Th2 and their cross-regulation (+ understanding what cross-regulation means)

Apologies, biology is not my area of expertise but I do have an interest in it. I "know" that Th1 and Th2 cross-regulate but I'm not sure what that means... Could it mean that if one ...
0 votes
0 answers
50 views

Covid-19 incubation period for vaccinated people

1The incubation period for covid-19 can be even something like 14 days. I guess this can be caused by having no specific immunity to this disease, so it takes some time for the immune system to react. ...
2 votes
0 answers
65 views

Do covid vaccines increase the risk of antibody-dependent enhancement?

A QAnon video which takes Nobel Prize winner Luc Montagnier's suspect claims about covid vaccination and multiplies them beyond recognition states that mass vaccination will lead to mass ADE, and that ...
2 votes
0 answers
66 views

Why do some vaccines cause flu-like symptoms? Why does this seem to be more severe in mRNA vaccines?

Flu like symptoms are noted as possible reactions on nearly every vaccine I've had since adolescence, but I've never actually seen these symptoms in myself or anyone, until now? I don't doubt that ...
4 votes
0 answers
85 views

Is there any data on herbal supplements interfering with the efficacy of vaccination?

Here's an excerpt from a paper published in "Journal of Inflammation Research" by Dove Press for a popular and controversial herbal supplement from India: Coronil effectively inhibited the ...
1 vote
0 answers
43 views

What is the historical or scientific basis for concern about COVID vaccines and pregnant women and their babies?

There's a lot of talk about whether COVID vaccines are safe for pregnant women and their fetuses. Current guidelines, while mentioning that there's little data, suggest that they are safe. However, I'...
0 votes
0 answers
18 views

When speaking of vaccine efficacy (for COVID-19, or other), is immune response or efficacy really being measured? [duplicate]

I've been performing many web searches using combinations of the words "vaccine", "vaccination", "COVID-19", "coronavirus", "efficacy", and "...
6 votes
1 answer
2k views

Does fasting improve your immune system even when you are already having some infection?

I am one of the self-motivated activists who run some groups to answer various misconceptions about science and try to fight against ignorance, pseudo-sciences and blind faiths. I was recently asked ...
1 vote
0 answers
91 views

Covid-19 and Original Antigenic Sin

My understanding of original antigenic sin, which I admit is minimal, is that with some pathogens, your immune system gets too focused on one variant and thus is wholly unprepared to deal with a ...
6 votes
0 answers
93 views

Does intermittent fasting induce autophagic cell death?

https://www.cancertherapyadvisor.com/home/tools/fact-sheets/intermittent-fasting-and-cancer/ In vitro and in vivo animal studies suggest that PF inactivates pro-proliferative pathways, while ...
2 votes
1 answer
143 views

Why is it so difficult to develop vaccine for HIV?

I recently learnt that vaccine basically involves making the body ready by informing it the structure of spike protiens the virus has before hand. Why are we not able to do this for HIV. What's so ...
2 votes
1 answer
57 views

Why is Antibody-Drug Conjugate regarded as Immunotherapy?

Many immunotherapy papers introduce Antibody-Drug Conjugates (ADCs) as an emerging modality of immunotherapy, and the following is one example: Marin-Acevedo, Julian A et al. “Cancer immunotherapy ...
1 vote
1 answer
114 views

How would the tuberculosis vaccine (BCG) decrease severity of COVID-19?

Two academic hospitals in The Netherlands (Nijmegen and Utrecht) just got approval to experiment with using a tuberculosis vaccine (BCG) to try to better protect hospital workers against coronavirus. ...
1 vote
1 answer
101 views

Are many viruses actually good for us?... maybe even essential to our survival?

We know that a very large proportion of bacteria are essential to our good health. Every other day we see press release about the microbiome, and its multitude of health implications. Is there ...
1 vote
0 answers
32 views

Are coronavirus-like spikes only seen in viruses?

Are there any natural proteins or cells (or anything) made by the human body with spikes like those of Covid-19? I know that there have been no serious side effects reported from the Covid-19 vaccine, ...
6 votes
1 answer
1k views

Is it possible to be allergic to corn but not popcorn?

Is it possible for a person to be allergic to one subspecies and not another of the same parent species? For instance, can a person be allergic to sweet corn but not popcorn (both subspecies of Zea ...
1 vote
0 answers
33 views

What protection does T-cell immunity confer for Covid?

This preprint, which was just released today, says that while some of the Covid-19 variants evade antibody immunity, they do not evade T-cell immunity. It says that this is true both of T-cell ...
1 vote
0 answers
18 views

Effects of anti-Rh(D) antibodies on the fetus

Rh disease is caused by the irruption in the fetal circulation of anti-Rh(D) antibodies. This only happens when there has been a prior exposure of the mother to Rh+ RBC. To prevent Rh sensitization ...
2 votes
1 answer
72 views

How often does the adaptive immune system "learn" a new pathogen?

I was arguing with an anti-vaxxer (clearly a favorite pastime) when he made the argument that there are certain risks, like triggering of autoimmune disease, inherent to the process of the adaptive ...
8 votes
2 answers
173 views

Will the COVID-19 vaccine grant immunity to other coronaviruses?

As I understand it, the mRNA vaccine teaches the immune system to recognize and attack the spike protein on the surface of the novel coronavirus. Don't all coronaviruses share this same spike protein? ...
14 votes
6 answers
2k views

Will COVID-19 survivors develop immunity from future infections?

For this question, assume that the virus does not mutate. Can survivors be expected to develop immunity? Why or why not (what is the thought process)? The CDC FAQ indicates that they do not know: Q: ...
3 votes
1 answer
146 views

How can a vaccine prevent an individual from getting a disease but not from transmitting it?

In the news about the COVID-19 vaccines which are about to begin distribution, I've seen statements to the effect that "it’s not clear if the shot keeps the disease from being transmitted" (...
4 votes
1 answer
144 views

Covid vaccine side effects [closed]

The Pfizer Covid vaccine caused allergic reactions. For patients that are deemed to be at an increased risk of adverse side effects following a risk assessment (e.g. because of diabetes, heart disease)...
0 votes
1 answer
48 views

Does Coriander Seed increase or decrease tnf alpha and il-6?

I came across two different papers claiming the opposite thing. Although there was a dose dependent increase in serum TNF-α levels in the CSHE treated groups as compared to control, the synovial ...
3 votes
1 answer
45 views

Given that reinfection is possible with the flu viruses, why didn't the 1918 flu pandemic last forever?

We know that reinfection is possible with the seasonal flu and one could surmise that it was also possible with the 1918 flu strain. But if reinfection is possible and immunity to the flu doesn't last ...