Questions tagged [epidemiology]

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Why Pakistan can “flatten the curve” but India can't?

Comparing the Covid 19 trends between India and Pakistan: One can immediately notice the stark difference: Pakistan managed to "flatten the curve", and India is unable to control the ...
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Why hasn't Russia's daily COVID-19 cases decreased as a result of its vaccine?

On August 11, Russian president Vladimir Putin announced a new vaccine for COVID-19. Since then Russia's COVID charts have looked like this: Evidently the vaccine has had a weak-to-no effect on both ...
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Is it true that half of the COVID-19 patients, even seemingly without symptoms, obtain serious heart damage?

In this video, complex systems expert and physicist-turned-epidemiologist Yaneer Bar-Yam claims that according to recent findings, about half of the people that have been infected with COVID-19 will ...
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1answer
50 views

Are there independent studies on the efficacy of vaccines?

Is there a collection, meta analysis or review of significant, independent studies that prove the efficacy of vaccinations? I am in discussion with a anti-vaccinationist who claims that the efficacy ...
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Level of vaccination for safe, large, international event [closed]

I've read as much as I've been able about COVID-19 all these months, but nothing comes to mind that talks about what an appropriate level of vaccination would be among international guests to a large ...
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1answer
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Is a nightly curfew an effective intervention strategy for limiting the spread of an infectious disease?

The governing bodies of several geographic areas hit by disease outbreaks will sometimes impose a nightly curfew on their citizens, restricting or limiting the ability of their citizens from going ...
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1answer
33 views

Why is the lifetime prevalence of depression lower than the point prevalence? Figures from a study

From an article titled "Prevalence of Depression in the Community from 30 Countries between 1994 and 2014 (Lim et al., Scientific Reports, 2018)": A random-effects model meta-analysis that ...
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1answer
49 views

Intra-atrial thrombosis epidemiology

I have searched without much luck about this question: What are the epidemiological data about intra-atrial thrombosis? All I’ve found are epidemiological data about benign and malign tumors, but I ...
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1answer
49 views

Fatality rate estimation

I'm a non-medical data scientist needing to quickly familiarise myself with epidemiological methodologies. (Don't worry I'm not going anywhere near modelling..) The definitions of case fatality rate ...
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1answer
58 views

In what time frame exactly was the 2009 H1N1 fatality rate overestimated?

I've read that "It's good to remember that when H1N1 influenza came out in 2009, estimates of case fatality were 10 per cent," said David Fisman, an epidemiologist at the University of ...
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1answer
25 views

Can cancer incidence rates, calculated from the general population, be used in primary care?

I calculated incidence rates (IR) for colorectal cancer using an age-period-cohort model. Is it useful for GPs to use such age, gender and anatomical sub-site specific IRs as a baseline risk, during ...
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1answer
64 views

As epidemiological countermeasures, why are flights cancelled and surface transport is not?

An early measure to avoid the spread of COVID-19 has been the cancellations of flights from infected zones, e.g.: https://www.reuters.com/article/health-coronavirus-spain-flights/corrected-spain-...
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Is regenerative medicine promising for Ischemic stroke stroke patients? ; two points difference in the 47-point test

Many papers says, regenerative medicine using MSCs are promising for Ischemic stroke stroke patients. But in my layman's sense, various data don't seem promising. So, I want to hear the opinions of ...
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1answer
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Are there any epidemiological or laboratory studies on the effectiveness of variolation?

Variolation has been brought up in some circles nowadays as a proposal to deal with the Covid-19 crisis (sometimes by invoking the glorious/revolutionary American past). Looking at the aforementioned ...
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What is the main way COVID-19 spreads?

Reading numerous news articles about COVID-19, I got confused as to what is its main transmission route. In particular, I am confused as to whether it is direct landing of respiratory droplets in ...
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1answer
20 views

What's the margin of error for the estimate on the percentage of people infected with latent tuberculosis?

According to a 2011 (news) article in Science More than a third of the world's population is estimated to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Most people's immune system can keep the ...
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1answer
27 views

Are there quantified risk factors for suicide in the U.S.?

The CDC has a page on suicide risk factors/protective factors: https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/suicide/riskprotectivefactors.html Are there any sources that quantifies how much each of these ...
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1answer
102 views

Could the Cuban coronavirus antiviral be a mass cure for COVID-19?

Sometime around 1981, the Cubans invented an antiviral treatment for coronavirus. What is its relative efficacy against COVID-19? What are the pathways and obstacles for it making its way to being a ...
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1answer
60 views

COVID-19 and genomic sequencing

The most common explanation given for the large amount of COVID-19 infections in Victoria (Australia) is that it has been transmitted from inbound people in quarantine via security guards to their ...
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1answer
95 views

Is there a standard projection (or ensemble of proyections) about whether a second wave of COVID-19 will occur?

Several countries and states are leaving or have partially left the lockdown and, with constraints, are recovering economical activity after getting hit by the covid-19 crisis. WHO has warned that ...
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1answer
37 views

Epidemiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-1

SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 seem very similar in terms of their nature and the way in which they entered the human population. SARS-CoV-1 appears to have been driven to extinction, but SARS-CoV-2, which ...
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2answers
101 views

Have clusters of Covid-19 cases been linked to supermarkets?

BBC news about a traditional Indian vegetable market (mandi) as spreading ground for Covid-19: Koyambedu: India's coronavirus cluster at a vegetable market [...] On 8 May, Tamil Nadu officials said 1,...
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1answer
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What does it mean, that an epidemic curve is truncated at the level of diagnostic efficiency?

Recently I've heard in one interview with a Professor of Epidemiology, that in my country the epidemic curve of COVID-19 is not flattened (contrary to popular opinion), but rather is truncated at the ...
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1answer
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Steps to ensure incoming foods from many grocery bags do not carry COVID-19 virus into the Refrigerator, Kitchen, Home?

PPS: If this is more Biology or LifeHacks then please feel to move it there. But this is a key VIRUS VECTOR that will come indoors and we are not all competent to "sanitize" the variety of items. ...
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31 views

Confirmed, recovered, deaths, meaning

I am wondering about the exact definition of a few terms that are being used in connection with the COVID-19, specifically in data sets. I am interested in the data at github specifically in the time ...
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Why Dengue is considered an Epidemic and not a Pandemic? [closed]

According to Pandemic (and many other sources with similar definitions) a Pandemic is an epidemic of disease that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple continents or worldwide, ...
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1answer
140 views

Will everyone get the COVID-19?

There is a Ben Shapiro tweet that says: For a variety of reasons, many Americans seem to think that "flattening the curve" means that fewer Americans will get covid-19 total. This is inaccurate....
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Peer-reviewed IFR estimates for (seasonal) influenza?

It seems every journalist has his favorite expert that they can quote to whip up a CFR or IFR number for influenza. (For example, a question here [which no longer has this information] said that the ...
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3answers
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How representative are the COVID-19 quarantine deadlines to the public health impact?

I don't know if this is the right place to ask this question. I feel like a lot of people are asking a very similar question, and all we have are deadlines for quarantines (as of writing this question,...
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4answers
142 views

Contraction-to-contagion duration for covid-19?

I've read that the incubation period of the covid-19 virus ranges from 2 to 14 days with rare exceptions (e.g. here). However, a person carrying a virus could theoretically be contagious and transmit ...
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What are the epidemiological basis (bases) of ceasing containment measures once an outbreak becomes an epidemic/pandemic?

A previous question on SE has asked about whether testing, a part of the strategy of containment, can help reduce transmission enough such that it reduces the need for aspects of mitigation (Could ...
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2answers
151 views

How can Stockholm be close to herd immunity without having overwhelmed the healthcare system?

According to several sources, models estimate 20% of people in Stockholm are already immune to COVID-19 (2014-04-22). However, German virologists estimate (2020-04-19) that to reach herd immunity in ...
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2answers
73 views

Is there research on the relative effectiveness of different social distancing measures?

Toward the end of the widely read Medium article The Hammer and the Dance, the author talks about "the ROI [return on investment] of social distancing". He provides a chart and a table showing the ...
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How is the duration of an epidemic defined?

I've come across papers that plot the duration of an epidemic using a parameterized model, and papers that calculate the expectation of the duration. But I'm looking for how the duration is defined. ...
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3answers
164 views

Was it a lab accident or something else that re-released H1N1 in 1977?

In the highly cited 2006 review of Taubenberger and Morens it is mentioned that: The impact of this pandemic was not limited to 1918–1919. All influenza A pandemics since that time, and indeed ...
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Has there been any research into how people are being infected during hardcore lockdowns?

Several countries around the world have instituted extremely harsh lockdowns: France, Spain, Italy, New Zealand, Argentina. However for some reason all of those countries keep getting new infections 2+...
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3k views

How many people died in the USA on average per day including up to 2019? [closed]

On average, how many people die every day in the USA? The statistics for 2019 and before.
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Is there any systematic evidence whether (US style) parks lead to the spread of respiratory illnesses?

New York City apparently took the somewhat controversial decision to keep its parks open during this Covid-19 outbreak, although quite a few in-door recreational facilities were closed, as were ...
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428 views

Why is a (simple) mask not recommended for asymptomatic COVID-19 patients?

Information about (simple) mask wearing (concerning covid19) is a complete mystery to me. On several official places it is not recommended for a person without symptoms to wear a mask. For example: ...
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1answer
370 views

Why did COVID-19 spread so much faster than H1N1/09 in China?

Despite China's success in controlling the COVID-19 outbreak insofar, a March 31 Science paper that analyzes the response has this intriguing (and alarming) observation The dispersal of COVID-19 ...
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Where can I find the total number of people living with or beyond cancer for the UK and globally, as up to date as possible (<2020)?

I'm trying to work out the total prevalence of cancer (all types) in the UK and globally, defined as someone who is alive and has had a cancer diagnosis at some point in their lives. I'm really ...
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1answer
122 views

What are South Korea and Japan doing right about COVID-19?

This chart shows South Korea and Japan significantly outperforming the rest of the world in preventing spread of COVID-19. My understanding is that everyone there is wearing surgical masks in public ...
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Would facemasks reduce virus transmisions in vulnerable populations?

The US surgeon general has asked (tweeted) the public to not buy face masks, because the claim is that healthcare workers need them more. CDC does recommend: Facemasks should be used by people ...
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1answer
89 views

Containment vs herd-immunity strategies and their mutual (in)compatibility [closed]

In the recent Covid-19 outbreak, the UK government's "herd-immunity" approach to mitigate the crisis has received a lot of criticism. If so many other countries have already decided to pursue a ...
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1answer
18 views

Efficiency of age-dependent and geographical quarantines?

Most western countries let young people transmit the virus slowly over a period of 1-2 years while keeping the economy in lockdown and letting the old and frail people shop and work together. That ...
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Effect of Covid-19 lockdowns on other diseases? [closed]

So I am sitting here at home in Covid-19 lock down. It got me wondering if there any prior evidence of the effects of lockdowns on the spread of others diseases? Or if there there are any solid ...
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223 views

What is a sophisticated estimate of the 2019-nCoV fatality rate?

I've read through this Q&A: Is the mortality rate of 2019-nCoV 41%? My understanding from reading that Q&A is that in the early phase of an outbreak, there are two naive ways to estimate ...
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Is there an inflection point in Coronavirus outbreaks where you can't contain the epidemy anymore?

So far only a few countries have been able to reduce through policies the number of people infected in their countries after being exposed to thousands of infected, viz. China (including Taiwan, Hong ...
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275 views

Will there ever be a universal vaccine for the common cold?

If I get infected once with the virus which causes a common cold, does that mean I will not get infected with the same strain of the virus ever in my lifetime? Is the immune system capable and smart ...
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1answer
42 views

What's the evidence for “flattening the curve” by social distancing measures in the context of contagious respiratory diseases?

This is more of Skeptics-style question, but since I only know of people on Stack Exchange challenging this (so it would not be a "notable claim" for Skeptics)... I'm asking here. For ...