Questions tagged [drug-metabolism]

Anything regarding the absorption, break down to inactive or active metabolites, distribution, and elimination of the drug through the body.

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Is ethanol toxic to liver, in the absence of ethanol metabolites resulting from inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH) enzyme?

Humans have been drinking alcohol for its intoxicating effects. For intoxication a small amount of alcohol is sufficient, but because the liver is very efficient in filtering it, we need more of it to ...
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Why was desvenlafaxine created, when venlafaxine metabolizes into it?

Pristiq vs. Effexor: Differences, similarities, and which is better for you Notice how Pristiq’s generic name is desvenlafaxine, and Effexor’s generic name is venlafaxine. These drugs are very ...
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Why are some tablets Telmisartan, Amlodipine and Hydrochlorothiazide bilayered and some are not?

I recently saw that some brands of Telmisartan, Amlodipine and Hydrochlorothiazide tablets are bilayered and some are not? On Googling I found this Bilayered tablet technology separates two ...
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Is unprotected sex with a pregnant woman safe (for the baby) if the male is taking (prescription) drugs that are not approved as safe in pregnancy?

Is unprotected sex with a pregnant woman safe (for the baby) if the male is taking (prescription) drugs that are not approved as safe in pregnancy? Due to the risk of a small amount of those drugs ...
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Muscarinic receptors in bladder

ACh contracts the wall of the bladder(by M3 receptor). How does it relax the sphincter?
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Does L-theanine increase caffeine's half-life?

Does consuming L-theanine with caffeine, either in drink (like matcha) or in pill form, affect the half-life of caffeine? All I can find about these substances ares claims that L-theanine slows the ...
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Codeine vs Morphine competition for UGT2B7 and CYP3A4

Codeine and morphine are metabolized by the same key enzymes UGT2B7 and CYP3A4. Obviously codeine and morphine should inhibit each other's metabolism. Did anyone experimentally measure this ...
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What does primary, secondary and safety outcome of a drug study mean?

I was reading a research article and came across this: We studied 55 outcomes of interest, including both effectiveness and safety endpoints. We divided effectiveness outcomes into three primary ...
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Does broccoli interfere with CYP3A4 metabolism?

There are many articles on the effects of the active ingredients in Broccoli but I have yet to find the "smoking gun" on this question. I know grapefruit is a big offender in blocking CYP3A4 but I am ...
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what is the advantages (for patients) in delayed and extended release drugs?

What are the advantages for patients between extended and delayed release drugs? i understand the difference between these two drugs, but i want to know the advantages to the patients itself between ...
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"Mechanism of Action" (MOA) of medical drugs

I heard today from a doctor that the MOA for most drugs is actually 'unknown'! Wow, can this be true? I skimmed thru a pharmacology book, it looked pretty convincing but ultimately but didn't state ...
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What properties of a topical medication determine what percent is systemically absorbed (bioavailability)?

Some medications are applied topically for a local skin effect, such as: Topical corticosteroids for eczema or psoriasis, of which approx 2% is absorbed systemically. Topical tretinoin for acne, of ...
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Are vitamin C and desloratadine better absorbed when taken shortly after eating?

I'm taking vitamin C supplements and desloratadine for my allergies. I've heard some people saying that it's better to take your medicines right after eating because your body absorbs them better ...
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Why are thiopurine metabolites measured in units of pmol/8×10^8 RBCs?

Thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN) and methylmercaptopurine (MeMP) are two important metabolites of thiopurine medications such as mercaptopurine (6MP) and azathioprine. The laboratory tests for these ...
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Dextroamphetamine vs Dextroamphetamine Salt Combo

Important: I've already consulted my doctor and am not seeking medical advice. I'm just curious here. I've been prescribed and have taken Dextroamphetamine for some time (round orange pill). Recently ...
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Caffeine clearance range/distribution and what determines it

A Sci. Am. article mentioned that Some people's bodies clear caffeine within a few hours, but lunchtime coffee may still be in the system of other people even late at night. Although they have ...
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Where does Ibuprofen inhibit COX-1, and what is its MoA?

Both ASA and Ibuprofen are COX-1 inhibitors. However, ASA inhibits the formation of the enzyme Thromboxan A2 through inhibition of COX-1 at SER 529, which is responsible for thrombocytes. That in turn ...
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What is the mechanism of acute caffeine tolerance?

I'll admit this curiosity is based on a personal experience I'll document here, but I do believe it's an interesting and useful academic question to study and explore. For a while, I've noticed that ...
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Higher doses of a drug being less effective?

Does body possibly have mechanisms for blocking drugs at higher doses and making them less effective?
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Is it safe to drink Monster Energy (or any energy drink) after paracetamol? [closed]

I took two tablets about an hour ago and now would like to drink an energy drink to give me a boost. I've been told this is potentially unsafe. Is there any dangers to this?
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Is drug-based liver damage usually traceable to free radical generation?

From my fairly limited understanding, much of the time medications are said to be damaging to the liver, what is meant is that the process of breaking them down causes the formation of free radicals, ...
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Why is thalidomide a current drug on the market?

Given the thalidomide birth defect disaster of the 1960s, why was it later approved by the U.S. FDA for treatment of leprosy (1996) and of multiple myeloma (2006)? Presumably, the teratogenic issues ...
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Urine analysis, the baking soda myth

So there is a remedy floating around the internet that states 1 tblspn of baking soda mixed in 8 oz of water results in forced excretion of water soluble drugs. For example methamphetamine. I'm not ...
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1 answer
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Does the rate of ethanol absorption into blood stream slow down as you drink more?

My coworker and I were having a discussion over the rate of alcohol absorption. He argued that after you reach x number of drinks, your body stops passing as much ethanol into the bloodstream because ...
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Why some people experience no side effects from a drug?

NOTE: Please, do not refer to the article it has been given as an arbitrary introduction to the question I've stumbled upon an article daily heroin usage for 20 years. Basically, the article is ...
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1 answer
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Risks of Caffeine Powder

I'm genetically predisposed to early onset osteoporosis, so I'm trying to cut back on acids in my diet. Coffee is a big one, but I'm also still in school so I'm very attached to caffeine. Would ...
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Raspberry Ketone Dietary Supplement? Fat-burning? Legit?

So I found (not expired or opened) a bottle of dietary supplements in my cabinet called "Ketone Raspberry" and it claims to "promote body fat reduction", "support increased metabolism," and "PROMOTE ...
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Any drug in which the withdrawal is fatal and thus requires regular consumption (after the first dose)?

Is there any drug/medicine which once assumed forces you to take regular doses to avoid death? In example a light version of that should be insulin (Probably I'm mistaken, but I've read that taking ...
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1 answer
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Why isn't clorhexidine gluconate used among humans?

It is used for non-human animals, but as far as I have read it is not used among people. Are there exceptions?
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How long should I wait to drive after taking a painkiller?

Recently, I was prescribed hydrocodone. Part of the instructions I was given (on the label, from the physician, and from the pharmacist) included not to drive while taking the medication. However, it ...
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Term for non-exposure-related tolerance?

"Tolerance" to a drug is typically interpreted to mean the state of requiring more of that drug to cause the same effects as compared to another individual, regardless of cause. However, the medical ...
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19 votes
1 answer
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What effect does long-term caffeine use have on memory?

I've seen plenty of references to the same study of how caffeine benefits memory after one day of use (1) (2) (3), but what about long-term use? There are all sort of factors to long-term use such as ...
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1 answer
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How much T4 thyroid is equivalent to an amount of T3?

How much T4 thyroid is equivalent to an amount of T3? E.g. will x T4 generally be created to 1/2x T3?
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29 votes
2 answers
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Why do I feel shaky after only a small amount of caffeine?

I like coffee, but caffeine seems to 'wire' me much more extremely than most other people. I feel energized or even shaky after less than half a normal cup, and a whole 8 ounces will usually cause me ...
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16 votes
4 answers
326 views

Can the immune system break down anything?

Every time one takes a pill, drinks a glass of wine, or uses an illicit drug, it is understood that the effects are temporary. Caffeine only keeps one awake for a few hours, alcohol only intoxicates ...
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