Questions tagged [disease-transmission]

Questions regarding how diseases are transmitted, whether between people or from the environment (including animals) to people.

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Are there diseases which are contagious but can also arise simultaneously in an individual? [closed]

Diseases like most cancers are known to be not contagious; they arise `from within'. On the other hand, diseases like the flu are known to be contagious. Are there also diseases which fit in both ...
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Scientific way for measuring contagiousness of disease

What is the accepted scientific way to measure how contagious a disease is? If there are more, what is the most accurate method/gold standard, similar to an RCT for effectiveness research? On ...
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Spreading covid talking vs breathing risks

Some links claim one can spread covid merely by breathing (not talking): Currently available research supports the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 could be spread via bioaerosols generated directly by ...
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After exposure to covid when is someone contagious?

Here it says: The time from exposure to symptom onset (known as the incubation period) is thought to be two to 14 days, though symptoms typically appear within four or five days after exposure. We ...
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How do the viral loads of vaccinated and unvaccinated asymptomatic, and symptomatic individuals differ for COVID-19?

I'm searching for information regarding the above question, but I seem to keep finding conflicting information. Some articles say that asymptomatic people have higher viral loads than symptomatic ...
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Corona virus and food transmission

I find conflicting info on this CDC cite it says Currently there is no evidence to support transmission of COVID-19 associated with food next it says It may be possible that a person can get COVID-...
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Are viral loads in vaccinated people only infectious with the delta variant? If so, why not with previous COVID-19 variants?

I'm reading on https://sfist.com/2021/07/27/cdc-confirms-that-viral-loads-in-vaccinated-people-with-delta-are-indistinguishable-from-unvaccinated/ (mirror): CDC Confirms That Viral Loads In ...
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If COVID-19 isn't spread through even food, why is it recommended to disinfect common objects?

Currently, researchers say that there is no evidence of COVID-19 spreading through food: "The risk of getting COVID-19 from food you cook yourself or from handling and consuming food from ...
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Are many viruses actually good for us?... maybe even essential to our survival?

We know that a very large proportion of bacteria are essential to our good health. Every other day we see press release about the microbiome, and its multitude of health implications. Is there ...
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By what mechanism did Sweden have a second wave of COVID-19?

I have often heard the theory that the waves in, for example, the UK, were caused by a harsh lockdown, followed by a release that kicked off the second wave. To my knowledge, Sweden did not relax its ...
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How contagious is Covid-19 - in laypersons terms?

The Covid-19 epidemic has been with us for nearly a year, and I'm still having trouble understanding in simple terms just how contagious it is or isn't. Lets say I have a 1 hour face-to-face ...
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New Covid December 2020 mutation in UK and its consequences [closed]

The new Covid December 2020 mutation in UK is believed to be 70% more contagious than the original version. Could one reason be that Airborne transmission by normal breathing is now a dominant form of ...
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How can a vaccine prevent an individual from getting a disease but not from transmitting it?

In the news about the COVID-19 vaccines which are about to begin distribution, I've seen statements to the effect that "it’s not clear if the shot keeps the disease from being transmitted" (...
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Definition of 'transmission onset' in this paper

I am a nonmedical scientist trying to make sense of medical terms that were involved in the following study: Transmission onset distribution of COVID-19. I am attaching a link to the paper for your ...
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Why do we seemingly not know how COVID will behave during winter, when it was winter in much of the world?

(Not sure if this is the right SE for this question) Why COVID Outbreaks Could Worsen This Winter Baker has tried to tease apart the effect of climate on the seasonal pattern of cases during the ...
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Are there already statistics about the spread of common viral diseases in the Covid-19 pandemic era?

Are there already public statistics regarding the spread of other viral diseases since the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, and the application of mandatory protection rules (e.g. protection masks, ...
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Why does R_t start so high for COVID in these models?

The site rt.live is a website for tracking the Rt value for COVID-19 for states in the U.S. The Rt value is the average number of people infected by someone who is infected with COVID-19. In almost ...
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how to test the effectiveness of a mask concept, that creates artificial distance

Distance is seen as a very good precaution against COVID-19. If we all could breath in at a hight of say 2 meters and breath out a a hight of 50 cm, then we could stand right next to each other and ...
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Is there data on the effectiveness of masks for preventing COVID-19 transmission in outdoor settings?

In the COVID-19 pandemic, many jurisdictions are now requiring that masks be worn in public, often including both indoor and outdoor settings. However, many sources (including widely cited preprints ...
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What are some medical conditions and disabilities that might prevent someone from wearing a face covering during the COVID-19 outbreak?

In Oregon, my local news station said that many local businesses, such as airports, are requiring that everyone wear masks or face coverings to slow the spread of COVID-19. They said that those who ...
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Is there a standard projection (or ensemble of proyections) about whether a second wave of COVID-19 will occur?

Several countries and states are leaving or have partially left the lockdown and, with constraints, are recovering economical activity after getting hit by the covid-19 crisis. WHO has warned that ...
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Social Distancing Groups at Beaches and similar large venues [closed]

Government agencies (for this conversation, assume USA) have provided guidance to prevent COVID-19 transmission. As it is a holiday, many lockdown weary have flocked to the beaches and similar venues....
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Are (transparent) face shields without masks/respirators reasonably effective at preventing respiratory illness transmission?

You can see "splash guards" used by (almost) everyone in this video of a German tracing center, but (almost) nobody wears masks there. (Well, one spokesperson did wear mask and no shield.) So are ...
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Is there a possibility of transmission of COVID-19 during sample collection process?

Is there a possibility of transmission of COVID-19 during sample collection process from safety kits worn by sample collecting person to the suspected infected person whose sample is being collected? ...
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Examples of infected disinfectants?

I've read in Pommerville's (2016) Fundamentals of Microbiology (p. 314) that contrary to popular belief that disinfectants kill all germs, there are examples of disinfectants that were contaminated ...
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Testing vs transmissibility of COVID-19 [closed]

For a person infected with COVID-19, what generally is the period of time where: they are capable of infecting others? they will test postive for the disease? In particular, I'm curious if a window ...
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What information we have about transmission of COVID-19 in detail?

A lot of information we have how the COVID-19 virus spreads in general. But what do we know about the detected and proven way of transmission: about which items (door handles, plates, salad bar, ...) ...
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Why won't COVID-19 just start spreading again once quarantine is re-opened?

COVID-19 pandemic started because 1 person had the virus, and then it spread to a lot of others. Now, let's say your country imposed quarantine and distancing, and you managed to halt the growth of ...
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Do common colds transmit poorly through mouth-to-mouth kisses?

The Guardian (in 2017) chose to highlight this study In 1984, researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison decided to investigate one of the best-known ways of catching a cold. They infected ...
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Are there viruses which can spread from humans to animals, but cannot spread from animals to humans? [closed]

It had already been proven that felines can be infected with COVID-19 from exposure to infected humans. However authorities are currently saying that there isn't evidence of the opposite happening - ...
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What is the distance the COVID-19 virus can travel in the air out of doors and remain infectious for someone breathing the same air?

I edited my question after doing some research. I also edited the question to include phrase "out of door". When indoors the risk is increased considerable with stale air or air that has ...
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How is COVID-19 transmission tracked with any accuracy?

I saw this article: New study finds few cases of outdoor transmission of coronavirus in China (and study it is based on). I don't have a science or medical background so maybe this is obvious but how ...
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Will everyone get the COVID-19?

There is a Ben Shapiro tweet that says: For a variety of reasons, many Americans seem to think that "flattening the curve" means that fewer Americans will get covid-19 total. This is inaccurate....
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Is outside food really safe to eat during COVID-19 outbreak?

There are 2 contradicting messages out there that mandate this question: "It may be possible that a person can get COVID-19 by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching ...
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Was the Huanan wet market a super spreader event instead of ground zero for COVID-19?

There have been a number of well recognised super spreader events such as Patient 31 in South Korea where a member of the church called Shincheonji was thought to have spread the disease to 30-40 ...
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Can you recover from COVID-19, and then be reinfected so as to be a danger to other people?

Assuming I've contracted COVID-19 this January and made a full recovery and the antibodies have already left my body again. Now, I come into contact with someone who is sick and I inhale some COVID-19 ...
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Is there a virus from which humans can recover, but which doesn't grant long lasting immunity?

Prior to the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic I was under the impression that viruses fall into two categories: Diseases from which you recover and afterwards become fully immune. When reinfected with a mutated ...
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Transmission of COVID-19 through domesticated animals

This is an exploratory question. If a COVID-19 infected person (person is unaware that he is infected) milks the cow for couple of days, is there a possibility of him infecting the cow thereby ...
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Should I wear mask to supermarket to protect myself from coronavirus? [duplicate]

US news keeps telling average people NO NEED to wear masks for coronavirus, but I see on TV that when Chinese/Korean/Japnese go out to the street, all of them wear masks. If the US advise people to ...
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How coronavirus are transmitted in New York City and in other states in the US? [duplicate]

We know coronavirus is transmitted by 1) droplet in air 2) touching a physically contaminated object by a coronavirus patient and then touch our face or mouth. Now New York City got hit so hard, ...
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What is known about transmission of coronaviruses through food?

I've seen a lot data about COVID-19 virus (SARS-CoV-2) on dry surfaces. But what about wet mediums, in particular food? In the West, it's easy enough to disinfect supermarket packages (before opening ...
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What's the evidence for "flattening the curve" by social distancing measures in the context of contagious respiratory diseases?

This is more of Skeptics-style question, but since I only know of people on Stack Exchange challenging this (so it would not be a "notable claim" for Skeptics)... I'm asking here. For ...
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Is there an inflection point in Coronavirus outbreaks where you can't contain the epidemy anymore?

So far only a few countries have been able to reduce through policies the number of people infected in their countries after being exposed to thousands of infected, viz. China (including Taiwan, Hong ...
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How is the NHS trying to delay the peak of covid-19? [closed]

On march the 16th (probably) the NHS held a press conference (Youtube Link) that includes (paraphrased) We need to <u><b>delay and weaken</b></u> the peak so the NHS would ...
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Confusing COVID article - Why would keeping the doubling time above the incubation period flatten the curve?

I stumbled upon this boiled down news article which makes the statement that if we get the doubling time for coronavirus cases above the incubation period (5.8 days), we will be able to effectively "...
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Can bedbugs transmit the COVID-19 virus from person to person? [closed]

I am in Montreal now and unable to leave because if I go home they will sent me in quarantine in various places where I do not want to go. Question: Do bedbugs transmit COVID-19 from person to person?...
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Why aren't we sterilizing N95 masks?

Please forgive the obvious question. H2O2 vapor sterilization is deadly for the layperson but should be workable for hospitals. I can't find the small Chinese study I read the other day about it. ...
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What fraction health care workers contract COVID-19?

What fraction of health care workers contract COVID-19? Does anyone know of empirical evidence? Ideally, I’m looking for a reference to a study involving type of work, e.g., ER in close contact vs. ...
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Given "enough time", does the coronavirus in a person just die off / get killed by white blood cells, leading to a full recovery?

During this social distancing that we're implementing, what happens to someone who, for example, is asymptomatic (i.e. has no symptoms) but is infected? Given "enough time", say, 2 weeks, does the ...
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Is a nightly curfew an effective intervention strategy for limiting the spread of an infectious disease?

The governing bodies of several geographic areas hit by disease outbreaks will sometimes impose a nightly curfew on their citizens, restricting or limiting the ability of their citizens from going ...